The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) was reorganized in April 2001 as an incorporated administrative agency upon the integration of the 15 research institutes of the former Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, the former Ministry of International Trade and Industry(MITI) and the Weights and Measures Training Institute under MITI. AIST's history dates back to the Geological Survey of Japan established in 1882 under the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. The ministry was subsequently transformed into the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in 1925, under which the Industrial Technology Agency was established in 1948. Following the establishment of MITI in 1949, the Industrial Technology Agency was reorganized as the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology three years later, in 1952. Through a succession of name changes and reorganizations, AIST became an incorporated administrative agency after the central government reform in January 2001. Some of the founding institutions of AIST have a history of more than 100 years and have achieved many prominent records of technological development. As a public research institute, AIST is required to function as a platform for developing technologies for innovation in Japan and to play proactive roles as an organization that directly promotes such innovations in industry. While constantly stimulating new industries, AIST takes initiative as a leading research institute for innovation while placing its major emphasis on research that offers practical benefits to the world.