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Research paper : Radioactive cesium decontamination technology for ash (T. Kawamoto et al.)−148−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.9 No.3 (2017) specialists, e.g. a researcher for chemical engineering who participated in the plant and column designs, and a computational scientist devoted to the establishment of radioactive Cs amount estimation methods in the column from the dosage of the column surface. When designing the plant close to commercialization, an engineer with experience at chemical manufacturers was invited to design the pilot plant.Related to scheme (4) utilization of conventional technology, the outside partner mainly worked on the problem with researchers of the collaborating companies and invited researchers from external organizations. The required equipment was purchased without our own development. We devoted particular attention to usability as a general method in commercialization to avoid company specialization only in implementing the technology. Our objective was the development of ash decontamination technologies using the PB nanoparticles. The strategy was that the companies would use the PB nanoparticles without trouble using conventional technologies for other tasks.3.3 Determination of R&D contentsAfter the strategy was fixed, the remaining issue was exact determination of who would do it and what would be done. The appropriate R&D content and the schedule were determined mechanically from available resources, budgets, human resources, time, and existing equipment.We especially devoted attention to choosing the adsorbent for the pilot plant test so that it could be applicable for mass production, i.e. only adsorbents manufactured by companies were used for the pilot plant test. We did not use adsorbents for which technology transfer was not completed. Regarding plant design, the plant would be constructed only by clarifying the technology using the commercially available components. Regarding the adsorbents, manufacturing equipment necessary for laboratory tests and for mass production are completely different. It is important that even if mass production was not achieved at the time, mass production was possible for the company; and at least cost calculation for mass production had been achieved. To achieve the requirement, technologies for which the technology transfer was not completed were avoided.Collaboration with universities and other research institutes was fundamentally important. Optimization of the materials for PB nanoparticles was conducted with the cooperation of universities and research institutes. At the materials development level, they have powerful foundations. The research institutes for agriculture and environment held abundant knowledge for various applications. An issue related to collaboration with the universities and the institutes is the management of intellectual property. In our research, collaboration with universities and research institutes was kept to a fundamental level of materials development.3.4 Flow of corporate collaboration and collaboration with the government and local governmentsFor commercialization, a time schedule and a strategy for each stage was fundamentally important. An unusual point of the research is that the demand rose suddenly because of the accident at the nuclear power plant. Consequently, many projects were led by the national government and the local government. This situation led researchers to follow the direction of the national government. The local governments frequently speculated on future markets. We participated in the project funded by the Strategic Funds for the Promotion of Science and Technology, led by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries from June 2011, where we engaged in R&D for farmland decontamination. In this project, to develop the contamination technology using adsorbents, we organized a research team including AIST, a university, another research institute, and two companies. Therefore, AIST played a leading role in coordination of efforts by the national government, a research institute, and companies.The R&D of ash decontamination started in autumn 2011. Initially, efforts emphasized the plant design, with some work on the development of adsorbents with the materials manufacturer. The most pressing problem at this stage was to nd a place for pilot plant tests. Conventionally, radioactive materials could only be handled in a strictly managed environment according to Japanese law. After the accident, for similar reasons, it was difficult to manage radioactive materials that had been released into the environment. To resolve this difficulty, the technological development was conducted along with legal adjustments, simultaneously. In finding a place for the pilot plant tests, we were requested to watch the action of the Ministry of Environment, to consider appropriate management to maintain safety, and to present it to the local government and area residents to obtain permission. A reliable relation between the project operator and the local governments and residents is especially important. We conducted pilot plant tests for incinerated ash treatment in two places in Fukushima Prefecture: Koriyama city and Kawauchi village. For the former, we provided technological support for the tests conducted at the plant location of the Koriyama Chip Industry Co., Ltd. Because Koriyama Chip Industry had been operating their business at this location since long before the accident, agreement of the surrounding residents to conduct tests was obtained. The latter was done by AIST in collaboration with the Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co., Inc. (TEPCO Environmental Engineering; currently, Tokyo Power Technology Ltd.). TEPCO Environmental Engineering had already been working on the decontamination of Kawauchi village when the pilot plant tests started. At Kawauchi village, the union of the local company conducted

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