Vol.8 No.2 2015

Research paper : Detection of influenza viruses with the waveguide mode sensor (K. AWAZU et al.)−105−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.8 No.2 (2015) References[1]M. Fujimaki and K. Awazu: Development of high-sensitivity molecular adsorption detection sensors – Bio-molecular detection for highly-developed diagnosis, medication, and medical treatments, Synthesiology, 2 (2), 147-158 (2009) (in Japanese) [Synthesiology English edition, 2 (2), 142-153].[2]H. Okada and M. Tashiro: Shingata Infuruenza H5N1 (A New Strain of Influenza H5N1), Iwanami Shoten, 7, 10 (2007) (in Japanese).[3]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:H1N1 Flu, http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/estimates_2009_h1n1.htm, 2015-01-02.[4]Cabinet Secretariat: Shingata infuruenza zenpan ni kansuru sanko shiryo (Reference material on new strains of influenza in general), http://www.cas.go.jp/jp/seisaku/ful/syakai/dai2/sankou2.pdf#search='%E6%96%B0%E5%9E%8B%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%83%95%E3%83%AB%E3%82%A8%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B6+%E6%AD%BB%E8%80%85%E4%BA%88%E6%B8%AC, 2015-01-02 (in Japanese).[5]Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare:Shingata infuruenza taisaku kodokeikaku heisei 21 nen 2 gatsu 17 nichi kaiteiban zentaiban (National action plan for pandemic influenza, February 17, 2009 revised total edition), 7 (2009) (in Japanese).[6]A. Hayami, S. Tachikawa, M. Tashiro and H. Okada (H. Okada ed.):Kyodokusei Shingata Infuruenza No Kyoi (Threat of a Hypervirulent NewStrain of Influenza), FujinamiShoten, 161 (2006) (in Japanese).[7]Tuberculosis and Infectious Diseases Control Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2014/06/27): http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/kekkaku-kansenshou02/, 2015-01-02 (in Japanese).[8]Office for Pandemic Influenza and New Infectious Diseases Preparedness and Response, Cabinet Secretariat: Tori Influenza A (H7N9) eno taio ni tsuite [On response against avian flu A(H7N9)], 2014/03/25 (in Japanese). [9]Shimane Prefectural Government: http://www.pref.shimane.lg.jp/industry/norin/ringyo/choujyu_taisaku/koubyougenseitoriinhuruenzanohasseinituite.html, 2015-01-02 (in Japanese).[10]Roche Life Science:PCR no ippantekina guidelines (General guideline for PCR), http://roche-biochem.jp/pdf/prima/molecular_biology/pcr/PCR_manual_J/third_edition/PCR_manual_chapter2_J.pdf,2015-01-02 (in Japanese).[11]A. C. Hurt, C. Baas, YM. Deng, S. Roberts, A. Kelsoand, I. G. Barr: Performance of influenza rapid point-of-care tests in the detection of swine lineage A(H1N1) influenza viruses, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 3 (4), 171-176 (2009).[12]I. Yamaguchi, T. Aoyama, M. Yamamoto, K. Kinoshita, Y. Ito and H. Nishimura: Evaluation of the sensitivity of a densitometry system, in judging the result of influenza virus antigen-detection kit using immune-chromatography, The journal of the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology, 23 (3), 39-44 (2013) (in Japanese).[13]P. Baccam, C. Beauchemin, C. A. Macken, F. G. Haydenand A. S. Perelson: Kinetics of influenza A virus infection in humans, J. Virology, 80 (15), 7590-7599 (2006).[14]National Institute of Infectious Disease: Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, http://idsc.nih.go.jp/disease/swine_influenza/2009cdc/CDC_rapid_testing.html, 2015-01-02 (in Japanese).[15]Ministry of Environment: Kogensei tori influenza ni sonaete (tai o hen) [In preparation of highly pathogenic bird influenza (in correspondence)], http://www.env.go.jp/nature/dobutsu/bird_flu/manual/pref_0809/4_chpt2.pdf,18,2015-01-02 (in Japanese).[16]K. Awazu, C. Rockstuhl, M. Fujimaki, N. Fukuda, J. Tominaga, T. Komatsubara, T. Ikeda and Y. Ohki: High sensitivity sensors made of perforated waveguides, Opt. Express, 15 (5), 2592-2597 (2007).[17]M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, Y. Koganezawa. Y. Ohki and T. Komatsubara: Silica-based monolithic sensing plates for waveguide-mode sensors, Opt. Express, 16 (9), 6408-6416 (2008).[18]X. Wang, M. Fujimaki, T. Kato, K. Nomura, K. Awazu and Y. Ohki: Optimal design of a spectral readout type planar waveguide-mode sensor with a monolithic structure, Opt. Express, 19 (21), 20205-20213 (2011).[19]K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki and S. C. B. Gopinath: Palmtop waveguide-mode sensor: Comparison of sensitivity and subtyping of influenza viruses with SPR, ELISA and Immuno-chromatography, Sensors, 2013 IEEE, ieee xplore. ieee.org (2013).[20]S. C. B. Gopinath, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki and K. Shimizu: Evaluation of anti-A/Udorn/307/1972 antibody specificity to influenza A/H3N2 viruses using an evanescent-field coupled waveguide-mode sensor, PLoS ONE, 8, e81396, 1-9 (2013).[21]S. C. B. Gopinath, K. Awazu, M. Fujimaki and K. Shimizu: Neu5Aca2,6Gal and Neu5Aca2,3Gal receptor specificities on influenza viruses determined by a waveguide-mode sensor, Acta Biomaterialia, 9 (2), 5080-5087 (2013).[22]M. Tanaka, K. Yoshioka, Y. Hirata, M. Fujimaki, M. Kuwahara and O. Niwa: Design and fabrication of biosensing interface for waveguide-mode sensor, Langmuir, 29 (42), 13111-13120 (2013).University helped us with the experiments. We received advice on biochemistry and virology from: Associate Professor Kazumichi Kuroda, School of Medicine, Nihon University; and Special Appointment Professor Kazufumi Shimizu, Center for Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, Kobe University.NotesNote 1) In Japanese, words for cold and influenza are used interchangeably, but the two are totally different. Influenza is a communicable disease that must be reported to the authority. There are some infectious diseases that must be reported and others that must be reported only at certain designated hospitals. The seasonal influenza falls in the latter category.Note 2) A clear definition of hypervirulent influenza is difficult. Normally, it is used for avian flu, and one of the conditions is that the protease cleavage site of HA is hypervirulent. In that sense, the Spanish flu is a hypovirulent type.


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