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Research paper : Development of material testing equipment in high pressure gaseous hydrogen and international collaborative work of a testing method for a hydrogen society (T. IIJIMA et al.)−67−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.8 No.2 (2015) standardization of the testing method for materials to be used in high-pressure gas equipment, through collaboration with related research institutes including the Sandia National Laboratories.AcknowledgementThis work was partially conducted as the “Japan-US cooperation project for research and standardization of clean energy technologies” of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. I express my gratitude to Dr. Bai An, Dr. Zheng Ming Sun, and Shuhei Nakamichi of the Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage Group, Energy Technology Research Institute, AIST, for their support of this work. I also express my gratitude to Prof. Saburo Matsuoka and Prof. Nobuhiro Kuriyama of the Kyushu University for their advice for the high-pressure gaseous hydrogen equipment and the effect of hydrogen on material strength properties.References[1]Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan (Eng. v. 2010-07): Commercialization Scenario 2010 for FCVs and H2 Stations) (March 2010), http://fccj.jp/pdf/22_cse.pdf, 2014-07-09.[2]Toyota Motor Corporation (2014-06-25): Toyota Jidosha, sedan taipu no nenryo denchi jidosha o, Nihon de 2014 nendonai ni 700 man yen teido no kakaku de hanbai kaishi (Toyota will start sales of a sedan type fuel cell vehicle at a price of about 7 million yen during FY 2014 in Japan), News release, http://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/3274916/, 2014-07-09 (in Japanese).[3]Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2014-06-24): METI has compiled a Strategic Road Map for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, News release, http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2014/0624_04.html, 2014-07-06.[4]Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: Article 7.3of the General High Pressure Gas Safety Ordinance and Article 7.3 of the Industrial Complex Safety Ordinance (in Japanese).[5]Y. Murakami, S. Matsuoka, Y. Kondo and S. Nishimura: Suiso Zeika Mekanizumu To Suiso Kiki Kyodo Sekkei No Kangaekata (The Mechanism of Hydrogen Embrittlement and Approach to Strength Design of Hydrogen Equipment), Yokendo, Tokyo (2012) (in Japanese).[6]The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan: “Yoki hoan kisoku no seino kijun no unyo ni tsuite (Operation of performance standards of Safety Regulations for Containers)” and “70 MPa asshuku suiso jidosha nenryo sochiyo yoki no gijutsu kijun KHK S0128 (2010) (Technological standard for compressed hydrogen containers for vehicle fuel device with maximum fuelling pressure of 70MPa KHK S0128 (2010))”, Yoki Hoan Kisoku Kankei Reiji Kijunshu Kaiteiban (Exemplified Standards Container Safety Ordinance, Revised Edition), The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan (2013) (in Japanese).[7]SAE International (2013-03-28): SAE J2579, Standard for Fuel Systems in Fuel Cell and Other Hydrogen Vehicles, http://standards.sae.org/j2579_201303/, 2014-10-14.[8]The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan: Heisei 22 Nendo Keizai Sangyosho Itaku Nenryo Denchi Shisutemu Fukyuyo Gijutsu Kijun Chosa Hokokusho (Survey Report of the Technological Standard for the Diffusion of Fuel Cell Systems Commissioned by METI in FY 2010), The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan (2011) (in Japanese).[9]Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (2014-05-30): New Measure for Promoting Dissemination of Fuel Cell Vehicles – METI to revise the technical standards for compressed hydrogen storage containers for vehicle fuel systems to harmonize with gtr on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles established by the UNECE – , http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2014/0530_02.html, 2014-06-17.[10]The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan (2014-05): Koatsu gasu hoan horei kankei reiji kijun shiryoshu dai 6 ji kaiteiban (Heisei 25 nen 3 gatsu 22 nichi hakko) shinkyu taishohyo [Comparison table of old and new exemplified standards, Reference material for exemplified standards for High Pressure Gas Safety Act, 6th revised edition (issued March 22, 2013)], https://www.khk.or.jp/publications_library/publications/dl/kouatsu_reiji_sinkyuu.pdf, 2014-10-16 (in Japanese).[11]2010 ASME BPVC Section VIII - Division 3, Article KD-10, Special Requirements for Vessels in High-Pressure Gaseous Hydrogen Transport and Storage Service, ASME, New York, (2010).[12]ASTM E 399-09, Standard Test Method for Linear-Elastic Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness KIC of Metallic Material, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2009).[13]ASTM E 1820-09, Standard Test method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2009).[14]M. D. Rana, G. B. Rawls, J. R. Sims and E. Upitis: Technical basis and application of new rules on fracture control of high pressure hydrogen vessel in ASME Section VIII, Division 3 code, Proc. ASME 2007 PVP Conference, PVP2007-26023 (2008).[15]ASTM E 1681-03, Standard Test Method for Determining Threshold Stress Intensity Factor for Environment-Assisted Cracking of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA (2013).[16]The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan: Heisei 23 Nendo Keizaisangyosho Itaku Sekiyuseiseigyo Hoan Taisaku Jigyo (Kaigai Ni Okeru Gijutsu Kijun Ni Kansuru Chosa (Koatsu Gasu Setsubi Ni Kansuru Obei No Sekkei Kijun No Chosa)) Hokokusho [Report of Safety Measure Project for Oil Refining Industry Commissioned by METI in FY 2011 (Survey on Overseas Technological Standards (Survey on European and American Design Standards and Maintenance Standards of High Pressure Gas Facilities))], The High Pressure Gas Safety Institute of Japan (2012) (in Japanese).[17]ISO 11114-4, Transportable gas cylinders - Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents - Part 4: Test methods for selecting metallic materials resistant to hydrogen embrittlement, (2005).[18]K. A. Nibur, B. P. Somerday, C. San Marchi, J. W. Foulk, III, M. Dadfarnia, P. Sofronis and G. A. Hayden: Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas, Sandia Report, SAND2010-4633, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. (2010).[19]K. A. Nibur, B. P. Somerday, C. San Marchi, J. W. Foulk, III, M. Dadfarnia and P. Sofronis: The relationship between crack-tip strain and subcritical cracking threshold for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas, Metall. Mat. Trans., A, 44A, 248-269 (2013).[20]T. Iijima, H. Itoga, B. An, C. San Marchi and B. P. Somerday: Measurement of fracture properties for ferritic steel in high-pressure hydrogen gas, Proc. ASME 2014 PVP Conference, PVP2014-28815 (2014).

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