Vol.7 No.4 2015

Research paper : New research trends in artifactology (J. OTA et al.)−205−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.7 No.4 (2015) as subjects is observed and analyzed. Specifically, based on the induced value theory,[25] this is characterized by the controlling of subject preferences through the giving of remuneration (mainly in local currency) for points obtained during the experiment. In other words, the experimenter induces specific utility functions in the subject, observes the behavior within a virtual social system where these utilities are controlled, and by looking at each actor’s utility change and overall social surplus, it becomes possible to deal with this explicitly as value. This method enables the modeling of the process of “value construction of individuals” outlined in chapter 2. The techniques for experiments with subjects are the same as the framework for experimental economics thus far, but the novelty lies in developing this, based on the results obtained as actions by real humans, from the level of the individual acting subjects (agents) into a model of the value construction process. It is for this reason that it is necessary to consider in advance, and carefully plan, the framework to conduct an experiment, its behavior patterns, and interaction. Through the combination with the Service Explorer, this has now become possible for the first time. In the case of singular agents, action is based on rationality and is therefore easy to model, but in the case of multiagent systems, the problem of how each agent behaves is inherently difficult owing to the interdependence of all agents’ values. A great deal of research has been done that discusses states of static equilibrium such as the Nash equilibrium, but if we include the complex dynamics surrounding this, it is difficult to maintain that we have a sufficient understanding of these particulars. We particularly lack good understanding from the perspective of the construction of value. Techniques centered on experimental economics can contribute to the modeling of this aspect. Using the aforementioned kinds of methods enables us to verify in economics experiments how a designed product service system functions in a virtual society in a laboratory before applying it in the real world. If an economics experiment reveals that a product service system, however excellent its functionality, does not show sufficient value from the perspective of benefits for a business environment or for consumers, it is clear that it requires either a redesign of the product service system structure, or a change in the structure of a social system that generates high value; that is, a structural change in the system (mechanism). In this way it would become possible to develop a new artifact design theory. 4.1.2 Modeling a product service systemProduct service system design is not design of the primarily singular artifacts called products, but rather designing the creation of functionality by both products and services, as well as its method of delivery. This necessitates a comprehensive system design that also takes the interaction between humans and society into account. It is essential that there is a modeling of individuals that incorporates mechanisms of purchasing, usage, and participatory behaviors of receivers with bounded rationality, mechanisms that change due to the various interactions within society, e.g., with competitive products or other consumers. We believe that the successive creation and modification of product service systems based on this will be effective.Figure 6 illustrates the concept of this collaborative research theme applied to the example of a smart house. A smart house is built around physical artifacts, such as a home, electrical appliances, and various pieces of equipment, and allows for the consideration of possibilities in the provision of various services that meet the consumer’s needs, through usage expressed by energy supply and demand. For this concept we first use the Service Explorer to model the receiver, centering on the artifacts, and design the functionality of the product service system (Fig. 6, bottom left). Next, we refine the model of individuals on aspects of recognition, behavior, and value, using the technique of observation of the receiver’s decision-making in the economics experiment outlined in the previous chapter, and modify and refine the product service system (Fig. 6, top left). This means that we perform both function design and design of systems (mechanisms), which takes the interaction of humans and society into account, in the laboratory. We then analyze the systems in more detail using the data obtained through actual service provision as feedback (Fig. 6, bottom right). It is difficult to closely match the items in Fig. 6 with the items in Fig. 4, but broadly speaking, the following correlation can be adduced. “Analysis” corresponds with problem setting and modeling, “function design” and “system design” with derivative analysis, “provision” with manufacturing, and “receipt” with evaluation and maintenance. In other words, this means that modeling of individuals is performed during the problem setting (corresponding to socialization technology) in “analysis” based on the receipt results in the step immediately prior to that. As described above, the outcomes of Phase II can be Fig. 5 An actual economics laboratory


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