Vol.7 No.4 2015

Research paper : New research trends in artifactology (J. OTA et al.)−204−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.7 No.4 (2015) necessary to assume an environment in which there are multiple interested parties whose interests do not necessarily coincide, that is, a multi-stakeholder environment, and the formalization as well as the systemization of the problems in this structure is considered useful in socialization technologies for artifact creation. This problem-solving is intimately linked to class III problems as put forward by Ueda et al. According to Ueda et al., problems in the design of artifactual systems can broadly be divided into three classes.[21]-[23] Of these, class III problems are explained as “problems with incomplete specification, where not only the environment but also information relating to the objective cannot be predicted by the observer, and are not exhaustively described.”[7] Reinterpreted based on this explanation and the discussion of the previous step, this means that this is problem-solving for problems with a vague objective and specification, where the designer and receiver cooperate to simultaneously determine the objective and specification. These problems are extremely burdensome to handle, and were not really tackled head-on in Phase II. Therefore, in Phase III, we aim to deal with these problems as well as the systemization of the problem-solving method, in solving a few real-world social problems. We wish to outline a scenario for the solving of systems that include these problems.(1) First, we use data analysis technology, simulations, and computational science as the foundation for our modeling. Many members of our center are specialists in these fields. Additionally, we are considering the inclusion of methods in experimental economics and experimental psychology, which experimentally derive, from an economic and psychological aspect, the behavioral principles and interaction of agents composed of a comparatively small number of acting subjects. (2) Next, modeling of individuals is performed. The individual is treated as an agent, and modeling is performed from the following three processes: recognition of individuals, activities of individuals based on recognized results, and value construction of individuals, which forms the basis for generating these activities. The aforementioned interaction is expressed in each corresponding step, and facilitates the expressing of interaction and mediation between multi-stakeholders. Such models are linked to each step and aim at modeling society, humans, and artifacts. (3) On the basis of the modeling formed in (2), problem-solving is performed.Figure 4 gives an overarching view of this problem-solving scenario. Dynamically changing individuals are modeled using the techniques shown on the left hand side of the image. These contribute to the overall problem-solving process described on the right hand side, but are mainly made use of in the modeling phase. This completes the discussion of the framework. Individual applications from various fields need to be applied and described from the perspective of the creation of an academic artifactology framework, and their universality needs to be discussed. We aim for the systemization of academic disciplines that transcend the limitations of specific disciplines, namely, socio technology for problem setting, function theory for modeling, synthesiology for derivative analysis, manufacturing theory for manufacturing, metrology for evaluation, and maintenance theory for maintenance. This is in line with the framework for the design engineering curriculum proposed by Yoshikawa.[24]4 Research cases and remaining issuesIn this section, we outline some concrete research cases and remaining issues.4.1 Setting collaborative research topics through member collaboration: A product service system modeling scenarioA product service system is “not only for selling products, but also for meeting the needs of users through a combination of product and service.” Using Service Explorer, the world’s first service CAD tool developed by RACE, and by incorporating methodology based on experimental economics techniques, we built an interaction model for designers who design a service, service providers running the service, and service receivers who benefit from the service. We will first explain the general approach of the methodology based on experimental economics techniques, then outline its application to product service systems, and lastly explain the methodology that applies it to the themes concerned.4.1.1 Application of experimental economics techniques to product service systemsIn experimental economics, controlled socioeconomic systems are created in laboratory environments, such as that shown in Fig. 5, where the behavior of actual people EvaluationManufacturingMaintenanceProblem settingDerivative analysisModelingModel of individualsExperimental psychologyExperimental economicsSimulationComputational scienceData analysis technologyRecognition/activities/value creation of individualsFig. 4 Problem-solving scenario


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