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Research paper : New research trends in artifactology (J. OTA et al.)−203−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.7 No.4 (2015) unknown, through cooperation among stakeholders.[16] Here, social technology signifies “technology to build new social systems, integrating knowledge from multiple areas in the natural sciences and humanities/social sciences.”[17] While dealing with various problems—e.g., co-creation technology strategies dealing with optimum design in interdisciplinary areas and global environmental problems—affiliated with comprehensive synthetic engineering, in itself active in various academic fields, it will clarify shared structures related to humans and society. Through the cooperation between the aforementioned two divisions, the overall center target is set as “socialization technologies for the creation of artifacts based on the modeling of dynamically changing individuals,” and the aim is to continually construct continuous harmonious relationships between artifacts and individuals/society/environment.3.2 Concrete research methodologyIn the previous subchapter, we explained that we will use an approach from the perspective of modeling of individuals and socialization technologies for artifact creation. We now explain this methodology in concrete terms. Let us first look at “modeling of individuals.” This problem was also dealt with in Phase II, but the main outcome was modeling of individual differences, and hardly any work was done on the changing state, i.e., dynamics, of individuals. In real-world problems, it is normal for actors to gradually change, and this problem is therefore extremely important. The discussion of problem-solving starts from the concept of hierarchical systems. Modeling is performed for humans and artifacts focusing on the complexity of the subject. Describing these as models results broadly in the models shown in Fig. 2. The models consist of elements such as body parts and parts that form humans and artifacts, which in turn combine to form groups, and ultimately society. The individual boxes can be thought of as being formed from two or more levels.A great deal of modeling has been performed for the respective steps, but modeling that connects the different steps is in general extremely difficult. One reason for this is the fact that the forms of expression vary between models. There is furthermore the discussion that, when the model for one step is homogeneous, the neighboring step characteristically is heterogeneous.[18] Although various techniques have been proposed already for the modeling of hierarchical structures,[19] there is still room for improvement from the perspective of general knowledge. For simplicity, we will consider the individual in one box to be expressed in the lowest part, and will be modeled in the form of the interaction between the homogeneous elements (each having their internal state, and for this state different values are obtained) in the top part of the box directly below. In this case, the internal state of the elements and the differences in interaction form the diversity of the individuals, and its dynamics form the dynamics of the individual.Much research has already been done on social technology (e.g., reference [20]), but we deal here with the term “socialization technology” from the problem-solving perspective. There exist various processes for this, but usually the modeling outlined in Fig. 2 is performed and the process progresses based on the derivative analysis, manufacturing, evaluation, and maintenance steps (Fig. 3(a)). Manufacturing in this context has the wider meaning of the introduction into real society of obtained solutions, and is not limited to the making of objects. Artifact creation is also a problem-solving process, and is based on similar processes. However, in this context, it is taken to consider aiming at “socialization technologies” from the preceding step, that is, the problem setting step (Fig. 3(b)). This corresponds to the aforementioned problem-solving in a broad sense, as put forward by Smith. It is well known that, in the creating of artifacts, it is Fig. 3 Artifact design process involving socialization technology: (a) Design process focusing on problem solving in a narrow sense, (b) Design process involving socialization technologyFig. 2 Overall view of modeling and modeling of individualsBody part, partHuman/artifactGroup/artificial systemSocietyModelingModeling of individualsEvaluationManufacturingMaintenanceDerivative analysisModelingEvaluationManufacturingMaintenanceProblem settingDerivative analysisModelingSocialization technology(b)(a)

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