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Research paper : New research trends in artifactology (J. OTA et al.)−202−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.7 No.4 (2015) Division dealt with human values, and performed their modeling.Considering the overall outcomes of Phase II, it can be said to have generated many research outcomes for design science with its focus on the material world, e.g., design of artifacts that take resource constraints and waste into consideration, and technologies for a large-scale complex simulation base. However, the discussion from the perspective of how to ensure the permeation of created artifacts among “diverse, changing humans” and in “diverse, changing societies,” was still insufficient and issues still remained.3 New direction in artifactology3.1 Proposed new directionPhase III (April 2013–onwards) is currently in progress at RACE. We considered it necessary, based on the outcomes and limitations of Phase II, to extend the subject of study in Phase III to include the humanities/social sciences, and to aim at building an academic framework for artifactual system science that is more comprehensive; specifically, extending the subject of study from the world of materials to include the world of biology and the world of humans. To this end, we reorganized and formed two divisions that deal intensively with the themes of artifacts, humans, and society from a perspective of strengthening the merger of the existing four divisions, and of promoting interaction between division members. Figure 1 shows the transition of the involvement of RACE in artifactology. It was discussed and created based on information in reference [15]. A structure was decided upon that consists of two divisions: from a more micro-perspective, the Human-Artifactology Division (division for the study of artifact-human interaction), which deals with the permeation of artifacts among diverse, changing humans and artifact-human interaction; and from a macro-perspective, the Socio-Artifactology Division (division for the study of artifactology within society), which deals with permeation of artifacts into diverse, changing societies and their interaction.The division for the study of artifact-human interaction studies the relation between humans and artifacts while aiming to solve a variety of social problems. On the basis of value models obtained in Phase II and knowledge gained in service engineering research, it aims at an important issue relating to people, namely, modeling of individuals. That is, modeling of diverse individuals that also includes in its consideration the dynamics of values that change through the existence of artifacts. While dealing with concrete problems such as product service system design and man-machine cooperation systems, we will clarify how artifacts and humans are related from a universal perspective.The division for the study of artifactology within society studies the relation between society and artifacts while aiming to solve a variety of social problems. On the basis of the concept of life cycle systems and the concept of co-creation obtained in Phase II, it aims at socialization technologies for artifact creation applied to society, and aims to propose a co-creation design methodology for artifactual systems, incorporating objective setting and solution searching for problems the objective of which is Phase III: modeling of individuals, socializationtechnologies for creationPhase I: setting of research agenda (dematerialization, breaking limitations of specific disciplines)Phase II: study of creative Process (life cycle, service, digital value, co-creation)Complex, dynamic real worldComplex, dynamic real worldSynthesis Analysis ArtifactsCo-creationserviceSocietyValuecreationHumanSelectionCollectionFunctionalexpressionStructuringCACBAHumanArtifactArtifacts with excellent functionality do not necessarily generate valueCreationExistingAnalysisEnvironment(nature/society)Fig. 1 Transition of the involvement of Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering, the University of Tokyo, in artifactology.

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