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Research paper−200−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.7 No.4 pp.200-209 (Mar. 2015) methodology. 2 Relation between artifactology and other disciplinary areas, new problems in artifactology2.1 Positioning of artifactologyThis subchapter surveys the disciplinary areas related to artifactology. In his book, “The Sciences of the Artificial,”[2] Simon attempts to create an academic framework relating to artifacts made by humans, in contrast to the explanation given by the natural sciences. He argues for an academic curriculum that deals with artifacts, from the perspective of evaluating design, searching for alternative solutions, and extensions to design societies including bounded rationality. Ichikawa[3] defines science that does not assume backward causality as artificial science, and states that its outcomes are evaluated by humans on their beauty and usefulness. Gibbons et al. pursue the changes in knowledge production modes in modern society.[4] They term conventional knowledge produced by the internal mechanisms in each of the disciplines as mode 1 (to which general sciences correspond), and knowledge that is produced in transdisciplinary areas that are more open to society as mode 2. On the basis of their classification they consequently discuss the relation between modes 1 and 2. The “Comprehensive Synthetic Engineering” discipline is defined as “an engineering transdisciplinary research area not seen in traditional engineering that relates artifacts designed and manufactured by mobilizing all the engineering frameworks and knowledge.”[5] Because of the importance of this, the Science Council of Japan set up the Committee on Comprehensive Synthetic Engineering in 1 Introduction: The aims of artifactologyResearch into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo, was established in 1992 to deal with the science of artifactology. The center was set up with the aim of engaging in education and research relating to artifactology. The term “artifactology” is discussed in the paper, “The Creation of New Paradigms for Engineering”[1] by Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, former president of the University of Tokyo. The paper states firstly that the many difficult problems we face in relation to the environment, wealth and poverty, safety, and health or, in other words, the “modern evils,” as the results of human behavior in pursuit of safety and wealth are utterly unpredictable. It also stresses that existing academic frameworks are formed depending on discipline boundaries and restricted viewpoints, and are a cause of these problems, to say nothing of difficulty in applying them to solve these problems. As a solution, it proposes the academic framework termed “artifactology” as a new academic discipline that studies all that humans create, denies separate sub-disciplines, and takes in all viewpoints. In other words, it is not a conventional deduction-based academic discipline, but a discipline based on abduction to derive hypotheses, laws, and behavior. This paper first discusses artifactology in relation to its neighboring disciplinary areas, and then proposes new problems and directions as well as a research methodology for future artifactology, as put forward by RACE. It then outlines concrete problems relating to artifactology extracted by center members in line with the created new direction and - Modeling of individuals and socialization technology-The aim of Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo, is to solve problems related to artifactology. The center has now entered its third stage. A new approach in the problem-solving process has been proposed in this paper. The scenario for problem solving starts by establishing a problem using the concept of co-creation. Next, models related to artifacts are constructed by integrating the methods used in experimental economics and techniques of experimental psychology into computational science, data analysis, and simulation technology. Modeling of individuals is realized by focusing on three processes: recognition of individuals, activities of individuals based on recognized results, and value construction of individuals. This proposal of RACE includes the socio-technical viewpoint of multi-stakeholders and the human-centered viewpoint of modeling of individuals. Several new research topics are presented, including a novel modeling methodology for product service systems (PSS).New research trends in artifactologyKeywords : artifacts, modeling, individuals, social technology, co-creation[Translation from Synthesiology, Vol.7, No.4, p.211-219 (2014)]Jun Ota1*, Nariaki Nishino1,2, Tatsunori Hara1 and Toyohisa Fujita1,21. Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8568, Japan*E-mail: , 2. School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku 113-8656, JapanOriginal manuscript received December 2, 2013, Revisions received May 12, 2014, Accepted July 4, 2014

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