Vol.6 No.3 2014
Article : Portfolio structuring and social implementation in the development of complex technology (T. KOMAI)−180−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.6 No.3 (2013) development, it was most important to incorporate the final stage (IV) for social implementation. We believe that the optimal system design would not have been possible if any of the elements were lacking. One of the factors of success was the smooth linkage of the elements using risks as a scale (rate of occurrence of a phenomenon), and the by-product included the establishment of sociogeology (the author is the chairman of the Japanese Society of Geo-Pollution Science, Medical Geology and Urban Geology) that links geology to medicine (health).4 Diffusion of the developed technology and realization of social implementation4.1 Collaboration with society and industry and the feedbackThe mechanism to diffuse the various types of GERAS developed in industry and society is also an important element. The aforementioned activities of the Soil Contamination WG, efforts in the academic activities for geo-pollution and urban geology, committee activities such as in councils and research groups in local governments, and involvement in businesses for soil surveys and environmental restorations with private companies were good opportunities to attract attention to GERAS. The activity on which we spent the most effort was the feedback of the assessment data from users that actually used the system. Normally, GERAS risk assessment is a forward analysis based on input data, but it is also possible to simultaneously conduct backward analysis from real contamination data. By repeating the two-way operation, not only did the reliability of the assessment results increase, but also the system efficiency increased. Moreover, good results were obtained in the communication with interested parties. By conducting risk assessments in realistic conditions rather than in a virtual environment, the risk awareness increased and the assessment results could be better understood. Therefore, researches in new academic disciplines are being done on optimizing prior and posterior distributions of risks using the sparse Bayesian modeling.Term 14.2 Public utilization of technology and its standardizationAs a mechanism to diffuse a technology, utilization of public institutions of the government and local governments is effective. Since the release in 2008, the GERAS-1, 2 versions have been used in over 200 government and local government institutions. Using this name recognition, we made appeals to the persons in charge of the soil contamination measures at major government agencies whenever we had opportunities. It was officially employed as follows. GERAS-1, 2 were employed as risk assessment methods for the Site Assesser, which is a certification system to diagnose land use, in the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The improved new versions of GERAS-1, 2 were deployed as risk assessment tools for soil and sand from construction work at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Also, the thinking of GERAS was introduced into the risk assessment methodology at the Ministry of Environment and Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Recently, through joint research with the Environment Bureau of Tokyo, the new version of GERAS is being developed with added life cycle assessment (LCA). In the risk assessment of remediation measures, it is important to establish a comprehensive assessment method for individual life cycles from the perspective of environmental energy as well as environmental burden. Therefore, as shown in Fig. 3, the general assessment is done for total environmental impact, including those on the surrounding environment and ecosystem as well as the external environmental burden (CO2 emission). To evaluate Aquatic organismsSoil organismsBacteriaLegislation of social systemBusiness, plant, local governmentEnd userEcosystem modelLCA modelGroundwater modelAquatic modelEconomic modelRisk assessment methodBuilding and refinement of individual models (Economic, ecosystem, living environmental, external environmental burden)Quantification and visualization of integration systemEconomic riskEcosystem riskLiving environment riskExternal environmental burdenSoil contaminationEnvironmental impactFig. 3 Composition of the integration system in the development of GERASIn addition to the assessments of soil contamination risk and environmental load, the integration system including economic model, groundwater model, ecosystem model, LCA model, etc. is developed.