Vol.6 No.3 2014
Article : Portfolio structuring and social implementation in the development of complex technology (T. KOMAI)−179−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.6 No.3 (2013) in which the overview analysis of the technological system to be developed is lacking. It is important to discern the weakest technological element in a system, in addition to concentrating on the technological development that must be nurtured, after carefully analyzing the property of the whole system. Even if an excellent technology is completed, if the related peripheral technologies and the relationships are not maintained, the system may be unusable. In the development of GERAS, the initial researches on which we concentrated were soil surveys, soil contamination restorations, and mathematical statistics methods, and these were mainly handled by the researchers in the engineering field. Later, exposure assessment methods and system development were strengthened, as they were considered weak, and the researchers of different fields such as physical exploration and geochemistry joined the project. About ten years were spent to complete GERAS. The research development that involved field fusion and leadership in R&D were important.Another important point was the construction of a database and analysis parameters that were essential for GERAS. To enable interactive risk assessment by the model creators and the users, the actual measurements of the contamination on site and the measurements of geology and groundwater were necessary. Since it was impossible for AIST alone to compile these data, the valuable on-site data and geological information were collected through joint researches with universities, local governments, and private companies. In such industry-government-academia collaborations, the Soil Contamination Working Group (the author was the chairman) of the Industrial Technology Cooperative Promotion Committee played a major role. For example, the studies included: survey and analysis of naturally-derived heavy metals conducted jointly with the Geological Survey of Hokkaido; risk assessment of organic compounds performed jointly with the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection; clarification of groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOC) done jointly with the Environmental Science Research Center of Yamagata Prefecture; and development of a geo-environmental informatics system conducted jointly with the Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University.3.3 Fusion of the technological development and its continuous developmentThe methods that were used to construct multiple components or elements and to fuse the elements in the development stage of GERAS are shown using several composition diagrams (Fig.2). First, with the conventional fields of environmental geology or geological contamination only, practical risk assessments could not be provided by these fields alone. Therefore, in the next stage (II), the fields of geochemistry and environmental sciences (biology, ecology, etc.) were introduced to fuse the fields and to enable scientific interpretation of the assessment results. Since it also became clear that the developments of exposure analysis and numerical simulation methods were bottlenecks (or weak elements) in the entire system, the technological fusion was attempted using the exposure and risk as integration scale, by incorporating the findings of risk science. Fortunately, these elements were highly compatible, and in stage (III), they served as the glue to hold the elements together, and played an important role in creating a new method of information processing based on information sciences and statistics. Also, for the social implementation of technology, sociology and the efforts in industry-academia collaboration were essential. In addition to the synthesis phase of technological Information feedbackResearch for fusion of sciences and humanitiesSocial implementation of technologyComposition(Ⅳ)StatisticsIndustry-academia collaborationInteractive processing of informationResearch in new academic disciplinesIntegration systemFusion of elemental technologiesOptimal combinationStrengthening vulnerabilitySociologyComposition(Ⅲ)Information sciencesRisk sciencesEnvironmental sciencesGeochemistryEnvironmental geologyComposition(Ⅱ)Concurrent use of elemental technologiesTechnological development within fieldsYet vulnerability existComposition(Ⅰ)Environmental sciencesGeochemistryGeo-pollutionGeo-pollutionEnvironmental geologyComposition (Ⅱ)Composition (Ⅲ)Fig. 2 Changes in the composition in the GERAS developmentThe characteristics of the composition in the four phases from beginning, during, and to maturity are shown, according to the research fields necessary for the development of GERAS and their composition. In addition to technical development, the final phase of social implementation is important.