Vol.6 No.3 2014
Research paper : Measurement of input resources for standardization activities in basic research and applied and development research, and the difference of the measuring results between the research types (S. TAMURA)−172−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.6 No.3 (2013) Electric machinery industryElectric machinery industryEducation, TLO, public research institute, public serviceEducation, TLO, public research institute, public serviceInformation & communication industryInformation & communication industry9.7 %6.9 %8.1 %6.4 %9.6 %10.6 %6.2 %7.9 %12.9 %26.0 %27.3 %25.6 %2008200920102011Fig. 3 Change over the years of the percentage of personnel involved in standardization among the IP personnelIP activity personnel, because the data was collected for the standardization activities of IP activity personnel. Looking at the “electric machinery industry” that represents the applied and development research, the number of IP personnel was approximately 5,000 persons. In the category “education, TLO, public research institution, and public service” that represents basic research, it was about 1,500 persons (Table 2). This can be considered as one reason the percentage of standardization activities increased in “education, TLO, public research institution, and public service” that represent basic research. The reason the number of IP activity personal was higher in “electric machinery industry” than in “education, TLO, public research institution, and public service” was because the number of patents filed was higher compared to the basic research institutions such as universities, and there were more work related to patent application. For example, in NEC Corporation, Fujitsu Ltd., and Hitachi Ltd., which are major Japanese companies, there are 100 to 300 persons assigned to the intellectual property division, and this matches the result of this study. In basic research institutions, there was also the reason that the percentage of personnel belonging to the IP division engaging in both the IP and standardization activities increased since the researchers contributed less to the IP or standardization activities.In Japan, the activities to establish the international technological standards to utilize the developed technologies are done at AIST and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) that engage mainly in basic research. AIST actively publishes papers on international standardization. Also, development of standards is done by university researchers, and the researches on communication protocol are done at the science and engineering departments of universities. It is thought that the activities related to the establishment of the technological standards are included in this category. The public service category is thought to include the public or governmental institutions that function as the secretariat for establishing the de jure standard. The above activities are thought to represent the standardization activities in basic research disciplines.The “electric machinery industry” and “information and communication industry” are thought to represent the applied and development research. It is essential to standardize the interface to commercialize technologies and to create development strategies of products. Therefore, the research disciplines in the applied and development fields include the activities related to technological standards, because they are extremely important in product innovations for today’s electrical machinery manufacturing industry.The above results lead to the hypothesis that there is a possibility that the standardization activities related to IP activities in basic research discipline may be conducted at the same level as the applied and development research of the companies.6.3 Problems in the standardization activities in basic researchThe universities file a number of patent applications, and it is necessary to confirm whether the technological standards born from the standardization activities by universities are related to the patent groups that they possess. Looking at the handling of the technological standards in the IP policies of the universities that ranked top for the number of patents published in Japan (Tohoku University, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo Institute of Technology, and Osaka University), it was found that no universities had any rules.- This means that a clearance system within the organization for patents and standards that exists in Japanese companies, does not exists in the divisions that handle intellectual properties at universities. The reason is because the basic research institutions such as universities have no production facility, and therefore do not execute patents themselves. Unlike the companies that engage in applied and development research, the universities do not have to pay attention to the presence of the patented technologies in the technological standards.The comparison of the standard management and patent management by different research objectives is shown in Table 3. In the private companies of the information and communication industry, the system for collaboration between patent management and standard establishment is established, as the execution of IP strategies is integrated and the framework is solid. NEC Corporation, Fujitsu Ltd., and Hitachi Ltd. have standard committees that integrate standard strategies and standardization activities of the companies. In the applied and development research, the effort to integrate patents and standardization activities is in progress. Considering the result of this paper, in the future, similar effort to manage the effect of patents owned by research institutions in establishing the technological standards will become necessary in basic research institutions such as universities.