Vol.6 No.3 2014
Research paper : Measurement of input resources for standardization activities in basic research and applied and development research, and the difference of the measuring results between the research types (S. TAMURA)−168−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.6 No.3 (2013) licensing, and dispute of IP activities, as well as people engaging in the planning, research, education, accounting, clerics, and other work necessary to support the IP activities.Standardization activity personnel of IP activity personnel:This is a person who engages in research of patents for standardization, assessment of essential patent and license negotiations, writing and submission of patent statements for standardization, response to patent violations of technology in standardization, and other works to manage the intellectual properties related to standardization. It also includes persons engaging in planning, proposals, and deliberations, as well as people engaging in education, diffusion, accounting, clerics, and other works necessary to support the standardization activities of the IP personnel.2.2 International comparison of the existing dataInternationally, there is hardly any attempt to collect data for standardization activities. One of the main reasons is because there is the lack of effort to collect data by the related international institutions. In the annual reports of the ISO and IEC that are organizations that set the international standards, there are data on the number of people at the government organizations of various countries and the number of standards established, but there is no report of the number of standardization activity personnel in each country. It is indicated that the objective of ISO and IEC is to create international standards in document form, and the collection of statistical data pertaining to the actual state of standardization activities around the world is not considered their organizational goal. On the other hand, the international intellectual property organizations such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) collect economic data pertaining to patents, but do not have the function to collect statistical data for standardization activities. The lack of institutions that conduct data collection systematically for standardization activities results in the lack of data that allows international comparison.Another reason is that the amount of resource invested in standardization activities is not recognized as part of science and technology data. Frequent discussions are conducted in OECD and UNESCO on how to set the range of science and technology activities. However, the activities for technological standards have been positioned as “related activities” to R&D, and are not considered as science and technology activities. They are positioned merely as activities related (or pertaining) to science and technology. Therefore, even to this day, they are not included in the official statistical data for science and technology.As a result, the question of which quantity should be considered as policy variable in order to evaluate standardization activities remains unsolved.As another practical reason, it is difficult to collect such data. In many cases, the standardization activities are not established as independent work, and they are often conducted as additional work adjunct to the main work of R&D or IP activities. Therefore, they are less likely to be recognized within the organization.2.3 Relationship between basic research, applied and development research, and standardization activitiesFor the number of standardization activities in universities that primarily engage in basic research disciplines, real data cannot be found internationally, as mentioned above. A similar situation can be seen for the real data of companies that mainly engage in applied and development research.2.4 Effect of standardization activities on technological innovationIt is reported that in electric machinery manufacturing in the US, there is a clear positive correlation between the number of people involved in the standard development organization and the number of patents obtained by the companies. The results indicate that the standardization activities of the standard setting organizations may have a cause-and-effect relationship with the IP activities as represented by the corporate patents.3 HypothesesIn this paper, the following hypotheses will be investigated.3.1 Hypothesis 1aThere is no internationally established method for collecting data on the number of people engaging in standardization activities within an organization, and it is currently under investigation. First, it is necessary, as an assumption for utilizing the data, to check the collection method and to see whether the data can actually be collected stably.Hypothesis 1a: The collected data of the number of standardization activity personnel is stable in terms of recovery rate, etc.3.2 Hypothesis 1bIn collecting the number of standardization activity personnel in IP activities, the collection is based on the definition for standardization activities that spread out within the organization, rather than on the definition considering only the work of standardization negotiation. Since whether the collection of data based on this definition is actually possible has never been verified in the previous researches, the verification of this hypothesis will be conducted.Hypothesis 1b: The definition is effective in the data collection of the number of standardization activity personnel.