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Research paper : Standardization of environmental analysis methods of hazardous chemicals (S. Taniyasu et al.)−283−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) References[1]ISO 24293:2009, Water quality -- Determination of individual isomers of nonylphenol -- Method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) (2009).[2]ISO 25101:2009, Water quality -- Determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) -- Method for unfiltered samples using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (2009).[3]Japan Industrial Standards: JIS K 0450-60-10:2007, Testing method for individual 4-nonylphenol isomers in industrial water and wastewater (2007) (in Japanese).[4]Japan Industrial Standards: JIS K 0450-70-10:2011, Testing methods for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and. perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in industrial water and wastewater (2011) (in Japanese).[5]Japan Industrial Standards: JIS K 0450-20-10:2005, Testing method for alkyl phenols in industrial water and wastewater (2005) (in Japanese).[6]N. Kannan, N. Yamashita, G. Petrick and J. C. Duinker: Polychlorinated biphenils and nonylphenols in the Sea of Japan, Environ.Sci. Technol., 32 (12), 1747-1753 (1998).[7]N. Yamashita, K. Kannan, S. Hashimoto, A. Miyazaki and J. P. Giesy: Estrogenic potency of individual nonylphenol congeners isolated from technical mixtures, Organohalogen Compd., 42, 121-125 (1999).[8]Y-S Kim, T. Katase, T. Inoue, S. Sekine, Y. Fujimoto and N. Yamashita: Variation of estrogenic activity in a commercial nonylphenol preparation fractionated by HPLC, Organohalogen Compd., 53, 61-64 (2001).[9]ISO 18857-1:2005, Water quality -- Determination of selected alkylphenols -- Part 1: Method for non- filtered samples using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography with mass selective detection (2005).[10]J. P. Giesy and K. Kannan: Global distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate in wildlife, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35 (7), 1339-1342 (2001).[11]S. Taniyasu, K. Kannan, Y. Horii, N. Hanari and N. Yamashita: A survey of perfluorooctane sulfonate and related perfluorinated organic compounds in water, fish, birds, and humans from Japan, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37 (12), 2634-2639 (2003).[12]N. Yamashita, K. Kannan, S. Taniyasu, Y. Horii, T. Okazawa, G. Petrick and T. Gamo: Analysis of perfluorinated acids at parts-per-quadrillion levels in seawater using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38 (21), 5522-5528 (2004).[13]S. Taniyasu, K. Kannan, M. K. So, A. Gulkowska, E. Sinclair, T. Okazawa and N. Yamashita: Analysis of fluorotelomer alcohols, fluorotelomer acids, and short- and long-chain perfluorinated acids in water and biota, J. Chromatogr. A, 1093 (1-2), 89-97 (2005).[14]N. Yamashita, K. Kannan, S. Taniyasu, Y. Horii, G. Petrick and T. Gamo: A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 51 (8-12), 658-668 (2005).[15]N. Yamashita, S. Taniyasu, G. Petrick, S. Wei, T. Gamo, P. K. S. Lam and K. Kannan: Perfluorinated acids as novel chemical tracers of global circulation of ocean waters, Chemosphere, 70 (7), 1247-1255 (2008).[16]J. P. Benskin, D. C. G. Muir, B.F. Scott, C. Spencer, A. O. De Silva, H. Kylin, J.W. Martin, A. Morris, R. Lohmann, G. Tomy, B. Rosenberg, S. Taniyasu and N. Yamashita: Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Atlantic and Canadian Arctic Oceans, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46 (11), 5815-5823 (2012).[17]K. Guenther, E. Kleist and B. Thiele: Estrogen-active nonylphenols from an isomer-specific viewpoint: a systematic numbering system and future trends, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 384 (2), 542-546 (2005).[18]Y-S. Kim, T. Katase, M. Makino, T. Uchiyama, Y. Fujimoto, T. Inoue and N. Yamashita: Separation, structural elucidation and estrogenic activity studies of the structural isomers of 4-nonylphenol by GC-PFC coupled with MS and NMR, Aust. J. Ecotoxicol., 11, 137-148 (2005).[19]M. Makino, T. Uchiyama, H. Saito, S. Ogawa, T. Iida, T. Katase and Y. Fujimoto: Separation, synthesis and estrogenic activity of 4-nonylphenols: two sets of new diastereomeric isomers in a commercial mixture, Chemosphere, 73 (8), 1188-1193 (2008).[20]T. Ieda, Y. Horii, G. Petrick, N. Yamashita, N. Ochiai and K. Kannan: Analysis of nonylphenol isomers in a technical mixture and in water by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39 (18), 7202-7207 (2005).[21]Y. Horii, T. Katase, Y-S Kim and N. Yamashita: Determination of individual nonylphenol isomers in water samples by using relative response factor method, Bunseki Kagaku, 53 (10), 1139-1147 (2004) (in Japanese).[22]Y. Horii, S Taniyasu, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Nakagawa, T. Takasuga, N. Yamashita and A. Miyazaki: Interlaboratory trial on the analysis of individual isomers of nonylphenol in water samples according to ISO 24293:2009, Bunseki Kagaku, 59 (4), 319-327 (2010) (in Japanese).[23]K. J. Hansen, H. O. Johnson, J. S. Eldridge, J. L. Butenhoff and L. A. Dick: Quantitative characterization of trace levels of PFOS and PFOA in the Tennessee River, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36 (8), 1681-1685 (2002).[24]S. Taniyasu, K. Kannan, Y. Horii and N, Yamashita: The first environmental survey of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related compounds in Japan, Organohalogen Compd., 59, 311-314, (2002).[25]S. Taniyasu, N. Yamashita, Y, Horii, K, Kannan and T. Gamo: Perfluorooctane sulfonate and related compounds in the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Japanese environmental samples, Organohalogen Compd., 62, 339-342, (2003).[26]M. K. So, S. Taniyasu, N. Yamashita, J. P. Giesy, J. Zheng, Z. Fang, S. H. Im and P. K. S. Lam, Perfluorinated compounds in coastal waters of Hong Kong, South China, and Korea, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38 (15) 4056-4063 (2004).[27]N. Yamashita, K. Kannan, S. Taniyasu, Y. Horii, N. Hanari, T. Okazawa and G. Petrick: Environmental contamination by perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates following the use of fire-fighting foam in Tomakomai, Japan, Organohalogen Compd., 66, 4013-4018 (2004).operation and Development (OECD) in 1981, and was revised in 1997. In the Chemical Substances Evaluation Act, the GLP was introduced in March 1984, and it is in compliance with the GLP principle of OECD.

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