Vol.5 No.4 2013

Research paper : Standardization of environmental analysis methods of hazardous chemicals (S. Taniyasu et al.)−282−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) on the valuable findings and technologies of the Japanese environmental pollution science. This covers not only the environment in a narrow sense, but will become the basis for the international solutions for hazardous chemical substance issues including the hazardous substances in products, trans-boundary pollution, and the Basel Convention, etc. To create the risk and dynamic models and to establish policies, it is mandatory to obtain objective and reliable measurement values.There are three ISO international standards on water quality measurement recently established with Japan as the convener, including ISO 24293[1] and ISO 25101[2] that were discussed in this paper, as well as ISO 22719.[43] Moreover, the international standardization of pH measurement of seawater is in progress. It should be noticed that these are all international standards closely related to the global environmental problem that is one of the most important issues in the international community, including global warning and pollution. This is one of the examples where the ISO’s main concept “to solve the international issues through international standards” is expanded to the global environmental issues, and where issues concerning domestic industry and environment policies as well as the international economy are being addressed. In the future, Japan must be responsible as an “advanced nation in environmental issues” for making international contributions by seeking solutions for the environmental issues through realizing the international standardization of many environmental measurements across the framework of different ministries. Also, standardization activity is needed to strengthen the industrial competitiveness through the advance acquisition of problem-solving technologies for environmental issues. In the future, standardization in close collaboration with industries will become essentially important.AcknowledgementIn this R&D, we are deeply grateful to the cooperation and advice we received from the following people and organizations: Akira Miyazaki, chairman of ISO/TC147 of Japan; ISO/TC147 members of Japan; Yoshiteru Tsuchiya, chairman and member of Standardization Steering Committee for NP and PFOS/PFOA in Japan; Jun’ichi Nakagawa, member of Standardization Steering Committee for NP and PFOS/PFOA in Japan; Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry (JEMAI); Japan Environmental Measurement and Chemical Analysis Association (JEMCA); and the people of the institutes and laboratories that participated in the quality control study.TerminologyTerm 1.GC-PFC: Gas chromatograph with the preparative fraction collector system where trace target substance in complex matrix is collected, concentrated, and purified using the high separation capacity of the GC capillary column.Term 2.Two-dimensional gas chromatograph: Method of separating and purifying the interfering substance or the target compound that co-elutes using two capillary columns. The separation capacity is determined by the length and diameter of the capillary column used and the combination of the liquid phase. This method enables advanced separation of the compounds, and also enables highly sensitive analysis by reducing the background of the detector by removing the organic compounds other than the ones subject to analysis from the analysis.Term 3.Internal standard: Substance added for the preliminary treatment of sample, the correction of yield in the analysis procedure, or for the confirmation of the recovery. Substance with similar chemical structure as the target substance can be used.Term 4.Fragmentation patterns: Pattern of ions produced by the cleavage of molecular ions. The fragmentation patterns reflect the chemical structure of the compound.Term 5.Flame ionization detector (FID): Standard detector used in gas chromatography. The backbone carbon of the organic compound is ionized using the combustion heat of hydrogen, and the change in ion current is measured.Term 6.Certified reference material (CRM): The reference material (standard substance) for which one or more property values have been certified using the procedure with established traceability (comes with a certificate). Each certified value has uncertainty of certain confidence level.Term 7.Primary method of measurement: The method defined as the “method that has the highest quality, of which the procedures are completely explained and understood, its uncertainty can be completely described using the SI unit, and the measurement result can be used as a standard without referring to other standards.” The primary methods of measurement in chemical analysis include the gravimetric, titration, coulometric titration, isotope dilution mass spectrometry, and freezing point depression methods.Term 8.Good laboratory practice (GLP): The quality control system for the organizational procedures and the condition in planning, execution, monitoring, recording, storage, and reporting, for the purpose of maintaining the reliability and quality of the test performance and for ensuring the test data at certain level in various safety tests. It was established by the Organization for Economic Co-


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