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Research paper : Standardization of environmental analysis methods of hazardous chemicals (S. Taniyasu et al.)−274−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) Labrador Sea where the surface water dove straight into the depth and the surface and deep seawaters were mixed thoroughly, the vertical distribution at constant concentration was observed. It was found that PFOS was supplied to the deep seawater by the global general circulation mechanism of outer seawater by thermohaline convection.[14][15] While the conventional long-range transport mechanism of POPs was discussed only in terms of atmospheric transportation, the importance of global long-range transport mechanism by ocean current was indicated in our study. Currently, this mechanism is under investigation mainly by the oceanographers of Europe and the United States. The outer sea survey method developed by AIST is now being used worldwide, such as, the report of the surface seawater distribution of the entire Atlantic by AIST and Environment Canada, which is the leading research institute for PFOS/PFOA study in Canada, in 2012.[16]The research accomplishments were highly evaluated in the international standardization of the analysis method, and Japan started up the working group WG56 (PFOS/PFOA) as the convener in the ISO/TC147 meeting held in June 2005, and commenced the international standardization process. The PFOS and 96 related substances were proposed as the substances subject to the POPs Convention in 2005. For standardization, research and development (R&D) (development of analysis method, improvement of analysis performance, maintenance of reliability by quality control study, etc.) and draft standard was written in the Standard Certification R&D Project (FY 2006-2008) “Standardization of the Analysis Method of New POPs Candidate Substances.” Almost all of the analysis technologies proposed by Japan were accepted, but there were a few issues raised in the discussion with the TC members. First issue was the selection of the analytical device. Initially, at the start of the environmental measurement of PFOS and PFOA, liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS) or the so-called single MS was used instead of the liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) that is generally used today, hence, the appropriateness of using the LC-MS was discussed. The British TC member proposed that the LC-MS should be included in the regulation in the draft process. However, LC-MS had lower selectivity compared to the LC-MS/MS and the separation from the interfering substances may be insufficient in some kinds of environmental samples. Since only one institute among the 23 institutes used it for international quality control study, the LC-MS method was only described in the Annex (Informative). Wastewater sample was proposed as a subject of analysis, but it was removed since the variation of analysis value was out of the guideline values in the international quality control study. For the related substances other than PFOS and PFOA, it was indicated that measurements could be done using the same analysis method, but only PFOS and PFOA were set as the subjects initially in the ISO standardization. The standardization would be delayed greatly if other related substances were added, and the subject substances were limited to PFOS and PFOA considering the demand for quick standardization. With the above deliberation, the WD was submitted in 2005, CD in 2006, DIS in 2007, and the FDIS in 2008. ISO 25101[2] was established as the international standard in March 2009. PFOS was added to the international POPs Convention in 2010, and was also added to the “Class I Specified Chemical Substance” under the CSCL in Japan in 2010. The international standardization was completed before the regulations for the hazardous chemical substances.Upon the establishment of the ISO standard, the JIS Fig. 4 Scenario for the standardization of PFOS/PFOA analysis method Filtering methodDetermine the range of application of the analyzed sampleInstrumental analysisSolid-phase extraction method (SPE)Identify cause of contaminationConfirmation adequacy of analysis methodRequests for domestic standard method from Japanese industriesCase studies of demand and applicationUnderstand the environmental fateImprove analysis method and data qualityAccumulation of data necessary for policymakingAssess the efficacy of chemical substance regulationImprove effectiveness of voluntary environmental managementUnderstand emission to environmentalExpand sample size and its target componentResearch goalSynthesis and integrationElemental technologyState quality control requirementsImprove the analysis methodMethod developmentQuality control study in JapanMaintain the reliability of analysis method and dataCertified reference materialInternational quality control studyReduce matrix effectSelection/optimization of separation columnImprove the analysis performanceSelection/optimization of SPE columnReduce contaminationInternational standardization of analysis methodDomestic standardization of analysis method

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