Vol.5 No.4 2013
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Research paper : Standardization of environmental analysis methods of hazardous chemicals (S. Taniyasu et al.)−273−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) findings and results obtained from numerous international joint researches using advanced analytical devices and technology. It has been engaged in researches focused on PFOS and its related chemicals before the international regulations were enforced. As part of the international joint research with the Wadsworth Center, USA, started in 1995, our group has conducted the development of the PFOS and PFOA analysis method from 1999, and in 2000, we started the PFOS project for the first time in Japan, through the Grant for Industrial Technology Research of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).In 2001, the environmental concentration of PFOS and PFOA were surveyed for the surface water and fish in Japan, and the bioconcentration factor (transfer of chemical from water to the organism), which is an important factor in risk evaluation in the actual environment, was reported for the first time in the world.[11] However, to understand the environmental fate such as long-range transport, it was mandatory to analyze the outer atmosphere and outer seawater with low concentration of 1,000 times less than the high-concentration samples of coastal water and organisms. The greatest issue in establishing the analysis method for the extremely low concentration level was the reduction of background contamination. This was because the target substance was used in various commercial products like water repellents, soil resisting agents, resin additives, and others. To reduce the contamination, contamination sources must be identified and quantified systematically from our experimental environment, analysis equipment, device, and reference material. After elimination of all possible contamination sources, the level of contamination of PFOS and PFOA were reduced by over 1,000 times.[12] The weak anion exchange solid phase extraction column (Oasis®WAX) was also deployed as the extraction method with high precision and high recovery rate.[13] As a result, the establishment of the analysis technology at several pg/L level that could be applied to the outer seawater was achieved.The measurements of outer surface seawater and deep seawater were started using this analysis method. Unlike the method where the PFOS/PFOA research was conducted from the perspective of hazardous chemical substances, we started this research by looking at their usability as chemical tracers in global material circulation satisfying the three requirements: persistence, water solubility, and detectability in ultra-trace analysis. In 2004, the outer seawater survey data was published for the first time in the world, and showed that the substances persisted in seawater at depth of 5,000 m.[12] Through the joint collaboration with the world’s top level research institutes, such as the Leibniz Institute of Germany and Wadsworth Center of the US that realized the importance of this research, international joint survey cruises were conducted to measure the vertical distribution from surface to deep seawater in the Sea of Japan, the Atlantic, the South Pacific, and the Labrador Sea. Particularly in the Aug 2006 Start Standard Certification R&D Project “Standardization of the Analysis Method of New POPs Candidate Substances”Research trendSocial trendStructure of this research in standardizationMar 2011 PFOS/PFOA analysis method for JIS enactedAug 2010 PFOS and PFOSF added to the POPs ConventionApr 2010 PFOS and PFOSF added to Class I Specified Chemical Substances under the CSCLMay 2009 PFOS and PFOSF determined to be added to the POPs ConventionMar 2009 PFOS/PFOA analysis method for ISO enactedMay 2007 Perfluoroalkylcarbonates (C12-C16) designated as Type I Monitoring Chemical Substance under the CSCL (Monitoring Chemical Substance after 2009)Jan 2006 USEPA requests voluntary reduction and elimination of PFOA to manufacturersJun 2005 PFOS and related compounds proposed for POPs ConventionJun 2005 PFOS/PFOA analysis method newly proposed to ISODec 2002 PFOS/PFOA designated as Type II Monitoring Chemical Substances under the CSCLNov 2002 OECD report on PFOSMar 2001 Research starts in Japan for PFOS measurements (NEDO Project: 00X43011x)201120102009200820072006200520042003200220012000May 2000 3M announced the phase-out of the production of PFOS-related productsFeb 2000 PFOS was detected from wild animals (Giesy & Kannan)1999 PFOA was detected from groundwater (Moody & Field)1980s Organic fluorides detected from wastewater treatment plant (Schroder)1966-68 Organic fluorides detected in human blood (Taves)1950s Start multi-purpose use in industrial products1940s Development of electro chemical fluorination (3M) Development of telomerization (DuPont)1938 Discovery of Teflon (Plunkett)Year1990198019701960195019401930Fig. 3 Social and research trends of the PFOS/PFOA-related substances and their relationship to this research

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