Vol.5 No.4 2013
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Research paper : Standardization of environmental analysis methods of hazardous chemicals (S. Taniyasu et al.)−271−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) committees (TC) of each field. There are two TCs for environmental measurement: TC146 (Atmosphere) and TC147 (Water quality). Each TC is divided further into subcommittees (SC) and working groups (WG), and each WG has an appointed convener who organizes the international meetings and writes the standardization draft. The NP (ISO 24293:2009[1]) and PFOS/PFOA (ISO 25101:2009[2]) were handled in the subcommittees ISO/TC147 (Water Quality) / SC2 (Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Methods). They were discussed and standardized in the working groups WG17 (Phenols) and WG56 (PFOS/PFOA), respectively.The JIS for environmental measurement includes: K 0101 and K 0102 for environmental indices, inorganic ion and metals, etc; K 0125 for volatile organic compounds; K 0128 for agrochemicals; and K 0312 for dioxins. The NP (K 0450-60-10:2007[3]) and PFOS/PFOA (K 0450-70-10:2011[4]) that were standardized in this research were established in the K 0450 series. The K 0450 series were originally started in 1998 to standardize the measurement of organic chemical substances that may affect humans or the ecosystem at trace amount in irrigation water and wastewater, when the endocrine disrupting substances started to raise attention. Bisphenol-A (K 0450-10-10), alkylphenols (K 0450-20-10[5]), phthalate ester (K 0450-30-10), bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (K 0450-40-10), and benzophenone (K 0450-50-10) were also standardized in the K 0450 series. The JIS standardization of NP was started at about the same time as the ISO, and the JIS standardization of PFOS/PFOA was set after ISO standardization as a MOD (partially modified standard).In this report, the discussion on the environmental behavior of hazardous chemical substances and the development of their analysis method, as well as two case studies of ISO standards[1][2] and JIS standards[3][4] are described to illustrate the research process for standardization and the significance of such research.2 Necessity and standardization of the environmental analysis technology that addresses the international regulation of hazardous chemical substancesIn the international standardization for global environmental issues, the role of the public sectors, such as the international organizations and national research institutes, is important. Here, we engaged in the international standardization activities from this perspective. On the other hand, aside from international contribution, environmental analyses of the hazardous chemicals are useful in grasping the actual emissions from the Japanese industry and in executing appropriate environmental measures. Taking measures in response to the international regulation of chemical substances may become particularly essential for the continuation of a company. Hence, demands for standardization of environmental analyses were urged in Japan, and JIS standardization was promoted.2.1 Necessity and standardization of the environmental analysis technology for NP4-nonyphenol (NP, Fig. 1) is used as raw industrial material of nonylphenol ethoxylates (used as a nonionic surfactant in various industrial fields such as the rubber and plastic, textile, and metal processing industries), but it is strongly suspected to have an endocrine disrupting effect. Also, NP is produced by the successive breakdown of the ethoxy group of nonylphenol ethoxylate through the aerobic and anaerobic degradation in the sewage treatment process and aquatic environment. Therefore, the use of nonylphenol ethoxylate in household products was banned by the self-imposed regulation of industry. In recognition of this practice, the environmental standard pertaining to water pollution was revised in August 2012, and NP was newly added to the water quality environmental standard for the preservation of the aquatic organisms. We reported the vertical distribution of NP in outer seawater for the first time in 1998,[6] and commenced the research to determine the environmental fate and toxicity, such as developing the analysis method for NP isomers and clarifying the estrogen-like activity of various isomers.[7][8] In 2002, the necessity of the international standardization of the water analysis method for NP was explained to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The research was selected as the Standard Certification Project (FY2002-2004) “Standardization of NP Analysis Method,” and we were able to start the research for the ISO and JIS standardizations for this analysis method.NP is a type of alkylphenol. In 2002, JIS K 0450-20-10:2002[5] existed, and for ISO, it was being drafted with Germany as the convener as ISO/CD 18857-1 (currently ISO 18857-1[9]). Both analysis methods involved the total measurement of NP as a single compound, and there was no information on the isomer composition. However, the ISO PFOAPFOSFig. 2 Structural formulae for perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

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