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Research paper : Development of switchable mirror glass (K. Yoshimura et al.)−267−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) 5 ConclusionWe have been conducting research to achieve practical use of the switchable mirror for about ten years. Some applications that were relatively easy to put into practice have been commercialized. In the research for using the switchable mirror thin film in the energy-saving windowpane, we not only conduct the R&D for materials, but also conduct the measurements of energy-saving effect when it was actually used in a building. By reflecting the result in the material development, we are conducting research to realize a windowpane with higher energy-saving performance.According to the experiment results obtained so far, the cooling load reduction using the switchable mirror windowpane is greater than any other energy-saving windowpane reported so far, and we hope to contribute to the CO2 reduction in the civilian sector, by achieving practical use of this product as soon as possible.AcknowledgementPart of this research was conducted using the grant from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). We are thankful to Bao Shanhu who was our joint researcher and a special researcher at AIST (currently at the Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, China).References[1]C. G. Granqvist: Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, (1995).[2]P. Jin, G. Xu, M. Tazawa and K. Yoshimura: Design, formation and characterization of a novel multifunctional window with VO2 and TiO2 coatings, Applied Physics A - Materials Science & Processing, 77, 455-459 (2003).[3]V. Wittwer, M. Datz, J. Ell, A. Georg, W. Graf and G. Walze: Gaschromic windows, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 84, 305-314 (2004).[4]J. N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J. H. Rector, R. J. Wijngaarden, J. P. Dekker, D. G. de Groot and N. J. Koeman: Yttrium and lanthanum hydride films with switchable optical properties, Nature, 380, 231-234 (1996).[5]P. van der Sluis, M. Ouwerkerk and P. A. Duine: Optical switches based on magnesium lanthanide alloy hydrides, Applied Physics Letters, 70, 3356-3358 (1997).[6]M. Ouwerkerk: Electrochemically induced optical switching of Sm0.3Mg0.7Hx thin layers, Solid State Ionics, 113-115, 431- 437 (1998).[7]D. G. Nagengast, A. T. M. van Gogh, E. S. Kooij, B. Dam and R. Griessen: Contrast enhancement of rare-earth switchable mirrors through microscopic shutter effect, Applied Physics Letters, 75, 2050-2052 (1999).[8]T. J. Richardson, J. L. Slack, R. D. Armitage, R. Kostecki, B. Farangis and M. D. Rubin: Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films, Applied Physics Letters, 78, 3047- 3049 (2001).[9]B. Farangis, P. Nachimuthu, T. J. Richardson, J. L. Slack, B. K. Meyer, R. C. C. Perera and M. D. Rubin: Structural and electronic properties of magnesium-3D transition metal switchable mirrors, Solid State Ionics, 165, 309-314 (2003).[10]T. J. Richardson, J. L. Slack, B. Farangis and M. D. Rubin: Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties, Applied Physics Letters, 80, 1349-1351 (2002).[11]Y. Yamada, S. Bao, K. Tajima, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Optical properties of switchable mirrors based on magnesium-calcium alloy thin films, Applied Physics Letters, 94, 191910 (2009).[12]Y. Yamada, H. Sasaki, K. Tajima, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Optical switching properties of switchable mirrors based on Mg alloyed with alkaline-earth metals, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 99, 73-75 (2012).[13]K. Yoshimura, Y. Yamada and M. Okada: Optical switching of Mg-rich Mg-Ni alloy thin films, Applied Physics Letters, 81, 4709-4711 (2002).[14]S. Bao, K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Color-neutral switchable mirrors based on magnesium-titanium thin films, Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing, 87, 621-624 (2007).[15]S. Bao, K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, P. Jin, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Optical properties and degradation mechanism of magnesium-niobium thin film switchable mirrors, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 116, 771-775 (2008).[16]K. Yoshimura, Y. Yamada, S. Bao, K. Tajima and M. Okada: Degradation of switchable mirror based on Mg-Ni alloy thin film, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 46, 4260-4264 (2007).[17]S. Bao, Y. Yamada, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Titanium-buffer-layer-inserted switchable mirror based on Mg-Ni alloy thin film, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 45, L588-590 (2006).[18]S. Bao, K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Metal buffer layer inserted switchable mirrors, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 92, 216-223 (2008).[19]K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, S. Bao, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Durability of all-solid-state switchable mirror based on magnesium-nickel thin film, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, 10, J52-J54 (2007).[20]K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, S. Bao, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Aluminum buffer layer for high durability of all-solid-state switchable mirror based on magnesium-nickel thin film, Applied Physics Letters, 91, 051908 (2007).[21]K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, S. Bao, M. Okada and K. Yoshimura: Flexible all-solid-state switchable mirror on plastic sheet, Applied Physics Letters, 92, 041912 (2008).[22]K. Yoshimura, S. Bao, N. Uchiyama, H. Matsumoto, T. Kanai, S. Nakabayashi and H. Kanayama: New hydrogen sensor based on sputtered Mg-Ni alloy thin film, Vacuum, 83, 699-702 (2008).[23]K. Yoshimura, Y. Yamada, S. Bao, K. Tajima and M. Okada: Preparation and characterization of gaschromic switchable- mirror window with practical size, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 93, 2138-2142 (2009).

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