Vol.5 No.4 2013
13/70

Research paper : Dose standards for safe and secure breast cancer screening (T. Tanaka et al.)−237−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.4 (2013) energy photon of strength I0 enters and permeates a uniform substance, the strength I of the permeating photon decreases exponentially as the thickness of the material d (cm) increases, as follows:I = I0 × e−dThe coefficient (cm−1) is termed the linear attenuation coefficient.Term 4.Air kerma: The mean sum of the initial kinetic energies of all the secondary charged particles liberated in the air per unit mass via interaction with uncharged particles. It is expressed in J/kg as per the International System of Units; however, the special name, grey (Gy), is also used.Term 5.Exposure: The absolute value of the mean total charge of the ions of one sign produced when all the electrons and positrons liberated or created by photons incident in the dry air per unit mass are completely stopped in dry air. It is expressed as C/kg in the International System of Units.Term 6.Radiophotoluminescence: The phenomenon in which luminescence occurs in proportion to the dose of radiation that glass is exposed to when ultraviolet rays are irradiated to the luminescence center produced in the glass by irradiation. This phenomenon is exploited in personal dosimeters.Term 7.Key comparison: Consultative committees from each metrology field established under the International Committee for Weights and Measures (Comité International des Poids et Mesures; CIPM) conduct important international comparisons in their respective fields termed CIPM key comparisons. There are 8 quantities subject to key comparisons in the radiation dose field:K1: Air kerma for 60Co -raysK2: Air kerma for low-energy X-raysK3: Air kerma for medium-energy X-raysK4: Absorbed dose to water for 60Co -raysK5: Air kerma for 137Cs -rays K6: Absorbed dose to water for high energy photons K7: Air kerma for mammography beamsK8: Air kerma rate for high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy sourcesOther than these 8 quantities, the amount of personal dose, -ray absorbed dose, and some others are the subjects of supplementary comparison.References[1]Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Japan. http://ganjoho.jp/public/statistics/pub/statistics02.html#prg3_1 (in Japanese).[2]WHO Mortality Database [database online]. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/morttables/en/[3]Director, Division of the Health for the Elderly, Health and Welfare Bureau for the Elderly, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare: “Gan Yobo Juten Kenko Kyoiku Oyobi Gan-Kenshin No Tameno Shishin” No Ichibu Kaisei Ni Tsuite (On the Partial Amendment to the “Guideline for Focused Health Education for Cancer Prevention and Cancer Screening”), Notification #65 of the Health and Medical Service Law for the Elderly, March 2000 (in Japanese).[4]Director, Division of the Health for the Elderly, Health and Welfare Bureau for the Elderly, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare: “Gan Yobo Juten Kenko Kyoiku Oyobi Gan-Kenshin No Tameno Shishin” No Ichibu Kaitei Ni Tsuite (On the Partial Amendment to the “Guideline for Focused Health Education for Cancer Prevention and Cancer Screening”), Notification No. 0427001 of the Division of the Health for the Elderly, Health and Welfare Bureau for the Elderly, April 2004 (in Japanese).[5]Chiiki Hoken Kenko Zoshin Jigyo Hokoku (Report on Regional Public Health Services and Health Promotion Services) (Health Statistics Office, Vital, Health and Social Statistics Division, Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare) http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/eStatTopPortal.do (in Japanese)[6]Mammography Guideline Diffusion Team, Radiography Section, Japanese Society of Radiological Technology: Radiological Technology Library (14-3) Nyubo Satsuei Seido Kanri Manuaru Kaiteiban (Mammography Quality Control Manual, Revised Edition), Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (2004) (in Japanese).[7]The Central Committee on Quality Control of Mammographic Screening NPO (ed): Dejitaru Mamogurafi Seido Kanri Manuaru (Manual of Digital Mammography Quality Control Management), Igaku Shoin (2009) (in Japanese).[8]Mammography Quality Standard Act.[9]Committee on Quality Assurance in Mammography, American College of Radiology: Mammography Quality Control Manual 1999, American College of Radiology, USA (1999).[10]European Commission: European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, Fourth Edition, European Communities, Luxembourg (2006).[11]J. Witzani, H. Bjerke, F. Bochud, I. Csete, M. Denoziere, W. de Vries, K. Ennow, J. E. Grindborg, C. Hourdakis, A. Kosunen, H. M. Kramer, F. Pernicka and T. Sander: Calibration of dosemeters used in mammography with different x ray qualities: EUROMET Project No. 526, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 108, 33-45 (2004).[12]C. Kessler, P. Roger and D. T. Burns: Establishment of reference radiation qualities for mammography, Rapport BIPM 2010/01 (2010).[13]IEC61267 Ed. 2.0, Medical Diagnostic X-ray Equipment - Radiation Conditions for Use in the Determination of Characteristics, IEC (2005).[14]T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, N. Nouda, T. Matsumoto, N. Saito, S. Matsumoto and K. Fukuda: Reference X ray field for mammography dosimetry in Japan, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry, 2, 43-51 (2011).[15]C. Kessler, D. T. Burns, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa and N. Saito: Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K7 of the air-kerma standards of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in mammography X-rays, Metrologia, 47, 06024 (2010).[16]D. T. Burns, A. Nohtomi, N. Saito, T. Kurosawa and N. Takata: Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K2 of the air-kerma

元のページ 

page 13

※このページを正しく表示するにはFlashPlayer10.2以上が必要です