Vol.5 No.1 2012 8/82

Research paper : Construction of a traceability matrix for high quality project management (A. Sakaedani et al.)−5−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) among elements, to reduce the information transfer cost, it is necessary to maintain independence as much as possible, or more specifically, to approximate the diagonal matrix with the highest independence when organizing the relationship between two elements using the matrix, and to reduce the difficulty (the concept that designates the difficulty of the aforementioned activity; details are explained later) of the element itself. In other words, to reduce the information transfer cost and to transfer the information accurately in the project architecture, it is necessary to control information stickiness and equivocality by using the interdependency between the elements and the difficulty of the element itself.3.4 Project architectureFigure 3 shows, as basic concepts, the relationship expressed as a matrix in Fig. 2.This relationship agrees with the following matrix calculation (Equation 1) when the vector is used.necessary to manage information stickiness and equivocality as mentioned earlier. To manage equivocality, it is necessary to control the relationships among elements between and within the team, activity, artifact, and other regions (i.e., to control “interdependency,” hereinafter). This is because the probability of error in information transfer increases along with the number of related elements. This also means that equivocality increases with increasing interdependency. When the cost of equivocality is forcefully decreased, the possibility that multiple receivers attach the wrong meaning to a piece of information increases. In addition, to manage information stickiness, it is necessary to control the factors that inhibit accurate information transfer of the element itself (i.e., to control the “difficulty,” hereinafter). Depending on the property of the element itself, the essential information that must be understood is not conveyed when transferring the information, and the possibility of error in information transfer increases. This means that information stickiness increases as difficulty increases, and the transfer may be finished before the necessary information is absorbed.From the above, the accuracy of information transfer is determined by interdependency and difficulty. Overall, the possibility that information is transferred accurately within the whole project is determined by the sum of the probabilities of (1) accurate information transfer by controlling interdependency and (2) accurate information transfer by decreasing the difficulty. Therefore, for the whole project, it is necessary to define the sum of the interdependency and difficulty as the complexity, and to use complexity as the control index.4.1 Quantification of interdependencyThe overall perspective improves as it nears the diagonal matrix. Moreover, equivocality decreases from the perspective of information transfer. Therefore, to evaluate the interdependency among the elements that may be factors of equivocality, the distance between the system matrix and the unit matrix can be measured. In comparing the unit matrix, it is necessary that the increasing equivocality be expressed as the increasing value of the non-diagonal component. Therefore, the linear Euclidean norm is used to measure the distance. The unit matrix is subtracted from the system matrix to be evaluated, and the Euclidean norm of that matrix will be the interdependency. However, the component value of the system matrix with respect to interdependency will be set as 1 when there are relationships among elements, and 0 when there are none. This will be called system matrix s hereafter. 4.2 Quantification of difficultyThe difficulty of the elements from their information stickiness will be expressed by the component values of the system matrix; the system matrix that has difficulty as the component value will be called system matrix n. The Fig. 3 Traceability matrix of projectFunctionComponentArtifactActivityTeamRequirementFeatureFunctionComponentArtifactActivityRequirementFeatureNeedsIn this study, the traceability matrix obtained as a result will be called the system matrix as it designates the properties of the whole system. By multiplying the matrix, the traceability matrix (system matrix) that clarifies the relationship between the team and the requirement can be obtained4 Index for seeing both the forest and the treesTo promote accurate information transfer among elements and to realize high quality project management, it is r = At(Equation1) requirement vectorteam vector system matrix-----

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