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Report : Synthesiology through knowledge integration to innovation−71−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) must learn from this. If the market grows rapidly without putting in the investment funds, the investment to R&D can be recovered very quickly. I am wondering why Japan is unable to create a model of win-win relationship with the emerging countries in this style.SumikuraAs a method for gathering the technology needed in society, there is, for example, a map website where people with GPS cellphones walk or drive, the route taken is displayed like a map, and other people can follow the route. This indicates the possibility of truly bottom-up manufacturing, and I think this method can be utilized effectively.SenohThat map can be considered user-driven rather than vendor-driven. Instead of the concept that the proposal for innovation is done by the vendor, we must bring out the power of the user-driven innovation. In the crisis situation today, what is talked about is social innovation. I think the social innovation is to “do social things by social participants in a social manner.” The sense of stagnation today in the living space and social space cannot be overcome unless the value of the whole society is changed. Now, the field of social business is emerging. I would like to focus on the fact that the world in which various things are innovated by linking socially in the same space is starting to take off.AudienceAs the precursor of the JSSPRM, the 2nd Department of Basic Science was created 30 years ago in the University of Tokyo, and it was about doing synthesis and doing something practical. What do you think about the relationship between Synthesiology and discipline, and the mechanism for actualizing them?AkamatsuSynthesiology aims to seek some sort of methodology that transcends the existing disciplines, by gathering case studies. For example, the categorizations include the strategic selection, breakthrough, and aufheben types. The good thing about Synthesiology is that it regards all fields as its subjects. One can understand even if it is not one’s own field of specialty, and that is because there is a common thread in the “way of thinking of the researcher.” We can discuss and understand mutually from the perspective of synthesis. I think that will be one of the powers that enable the construction of the discipline to link the disciplines.SenohIn terms of disciplinary, I think there are six methods for developing a new discipline: apical / advanced knowledge, interdisciplinary knowledge, niche / interstitial knowledge, fused knowledge, cross-disciplinary knowledge, and meta level / superior knowledge. Also, I question whether the cutting-edge discipline will be of hypothesis verification, and I think it will be of exploratory learning. When looking at Synthesiology from the sideline and wondering where it will go, I feel that there can be developments of epistemological discipline and methodological discipline, rather than ontological discipline. If that is its orientation, I think synthesiology has huge potential to bring about a wonderful discipline, and it is exciting.OnoThank you for your very encouraging comment. The term kagaku (science) in Japanese has the meaning of “individual branches of knowledge.” I am thinking that a definitive discipline will not be made in synthesiology, and now we emphasize the three forms of methodology that can be used commonly and cross-sectionally for each discipline, or for its fusion. Yet, I would like to investigate further the forms Prof. Senoh suggested.KobayashiPertaining to “how to discuss the policy that leads to innovation,” you talked about “innovation is done by user driven rather than vendor driven” and “Japan cannot keep up with the speed of the world.” How about “how to plan and lead to the policy?”AkamatsuI think one feels something only after picking up that object in one’s hand. Since the thing and system that became an entity is very powerful, one way is to set up the process of developing it by receiving feedback. Until now, the thing could not be created without the solid build-up of hardware, but I think some assumed form can be made at a very early stage by using simulations.SumikuraI have suggested that a bottom-up system is necessary as a mechanism to collect the demands, but of course, there are various routes. There are cases where basic research done without considering any particular demand may link to a demand. Therefore, we need a matching mechanism to pick out such researches and put them into necessary places, and it’s also necessary to train connoisseurs for their interaction.SenohEveryone started to develop “a way of knowledge for how to use knowledge.” That’s the point. I talk about the “knowledge to utilize knowledge,” and what Japan is lacking is not the development of knowledge itself, but the development of knowledge to utilize knowledge. I would like to consider synthesiology as an attempt to develop the knowledge to utilize knowledge.

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