Vol.5 No.1 2012

Report : Synthesiology through knowledge integration to innovation−69−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) rate, I expect a lot from the development of synthesiology.[Topic contribution]Koichi Sumikura (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)Inspired by the lectures, I would like to contribute some topics in relation to intellectual property.One of the points of Synthesiology is to “achieve the goal through the selection and integration of the elements.” The right to intellectual property has the original function of exercising the individual right while maintaining exclusivity, or in other words, the function to block and slow down other people’s R&D. However the intellectual properties in the future may enter the age of synthesis. Various intellectual properties including patents and know-how are selected, integrated, pooled, and packaged to promote their distribution. This will encourage R&D, as the innovations will be promoted since people can easily access the accumulated knowledge. I would like to introduce a case study.I considered two patterns of cooperative management of intellectual property. One is the pattern where “R&Ds are conducted individually at each institute while the management of intellectual property is done jointly.”This includes the patent pool that assumes the conclusion of a license contract with a monetary agreement, and the commons that assume the use free of charge. It is important to determine which elements to select, what package to make, and how these are diffused.A famous example of a patent pool is MPEG-2. It is licensed as a package by creating a patent portfolio, and it is very successful as a business. In the field of agriculture, the Golden Rice contains high quantity of vitamin A and is expected to improve the nutrition of the people of developing countries. In this case, by packaging a product with over 70 patents in the United States alone and the need to sign six material transfer contracts, the time and cost of negotiating with individual right holders are avoided to promote the diffusion of the technology. Another example is GlaxoSmithKline plc. While this is a CSR activity by a company, an attempt is made to construct a patent pool for neglected topical diseases to provide it at low cost, and other companies are asked to participate. There is also a similar movement in the agricultural field for developing software by open source. The Cambia of Australia asks the BiOS licensees to allow free use of any improved inventions generated. On the other hand, for example, there is the commons that collect the data for drug toxicity with the concept of preventing dual investment on the toxicity tests, and the patents of specific fields are aggregated and packaged to be used free of charge, as in the eco patent commons.Second is that the “R&D is done jointly by multiple institutes and at the same time the management of intellectual property is done under a certain rule.” The SC4SM (Stem Cells for Safer Medicines) is a British government-private sector consortium that enables the use of stem cells such as iPS cells in the drug toxicity tests. The government institutes and major pharmaceutical companies participate to develop the mechanism and to manage the developed patents.Finally, I would like to touch upon the development of new technology for “enabling both the reduction of energy consumption and economic vitalization.” In the situation after the earthquake, the economic vitalization must not be stalled while it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption. To do so, it is necessary to create a mechanism for widely gathering demands, to develop the necessary elements, to conduct R&D to combine such elements, and to have this new technology spread throughout society.As one specific plan, a bottom-up type website like Wikipedia where anyone can write can be set up to gather the demands. For the combination and development of necessary elements, the technology needed immediately is determined by committees of experts, and the R&D is promoted by preferential tax treatment or reduction/exemption of patent fees. Then, to diffuse the implemented product, the companies that use such products are given preferential tax breaks. Such mechanism can be considered. I mention these as the materials for discussion pertaining to the handling of intellectual property rights and the possibility that reduction/exemption of patent fees may help promote R&D.Motoyuki Akamatsu (Senior Editor, Synthesiology; AIST)The general process by which R&D was used in the market until now was that the company people found and used the elemental technology research results. Synthesiology aims to establish a methodology that allows the product realization in society from the researchers’ side. We analyzed and categorized about 70 Synthesiology papers on how the researches entered society and what scenarios and processes were taken. I would like to present some examples.・Selection and integration of element⇒Achievement of goal・Intellectual property rights: Maintenance of exclusive rights by execution of individual rights(= Blocking and delay of R&D) ↓Pooling and distribution promotion through selection/integration of intellectual knowledge(= Promotion of R&D, promotion of access to knowledge)Intellectual property rights enter the age of synthesis


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