Vol.5 No.1 2012

Research paper : Construction of a traceability matrix for high quality project management (A. Sakaedani et al.)−3−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) in an organization or a project. That is because if there are separate senders, the relationship with the receiver will be determined uniquely, and the information transfer cost can be calculated as the sum total of the information stickiness of the sender. However, if the sender is the same, the cost to modify the sender’s information stickiness to individual receivers must be added. In other words, considerations must be made for the cost of preparation to change the destination of the information transfer from one receiver to another. To add this into the cost, the concept of equivocality is introduced.Equivocality means that certain information may take on several meanings according to the receiver’s perspective. For example, when information is transferred to one receiver, one piece of information may be given two meanings A and B. However, in the case where there are multiple receivers, the meaning may be not only A and B, but also C and D. As the number of information transfer destinations increases, the equivocality increases. Attempting to ensure that the multiple receivers arrive at the correct meaning, the sender of the information may add preliminary information that can be correctly understood by multiple receivers, for example, in instructional material, or the material may be rewritten to match the receiver. If the receiver is specified and the information transfer starts, this can be addressed as the issue of information stickiness. However, in the case where the receiver is not specified, or before the information transfer, it is necessary to consider the transfer cost of equivocality rather than information stickiness. As seen from above, the cost of equivocality arising from the 1:n relationship is dependent on the number of receivers. To control equivocality, it is necessary to reduce the number of receivers. Next, in the case of n:1, it is necessary to organize the thought by integrating the number n of transferred pieces of ambiguous information to provide one meaning. By maintaining a consistent meaning of n pieces of information, the information is integrated to have one meaning. The information transfer cost is expected to change since the integration work is dependent on n, and like 1:n, it is desirable that n be as small as possible.Moreover, in a project conducted under limited budget and time, there may be cases where the activity is conducted before the information transfer is completed, due to the limitations of higher information transfer cost. To avoid such a situation, it is necessary to create and manage a condition where the transfer cost is minimized as much as possible within the project. Therefore, in an information-centric software development project, the management of information stickiness and equivocality is expected to promote accurate information transfer between the sender and receiver, and is important in realizing high quality project management.3 Construction of the project architecture (traceability matrix)In managing information stickiness and equivocality in an information-centric project, it is necessary to see what elements constitute the project and to organize the relationships of each element. For this purpose, a model will be constructed.3.1 Concept of element extractionThe elements are extracted by object-oriented business modeling. According to requirements engineering,[10] which incorporates the concept of object orientation, needs,Term 1 feature,Term 2 and requirementTerm 3 elements are extracted to constitute the system called a project. The needs are related to features, and features are related to requirements. FunctionTerm 4 and componentTerm 5 elements are extracted according to “all things have functions.”[11] The components are related to functions. From process flow, artifact,Term 6 activity,Term 7 and teamTerm 8 elements are extracted. Teams are related to activities, and activities are related to artifacts. 3.2 Concept for organizing relationships among elements and examples of relationshipsIn defining the architecture for a whole system called a project, focus is placed on two concepts: “axiomatic design”[12][13] of mechanical engineering, and “business architecture”[14][15] of organization science. In designing the organizational activity, enterprise architecture (EA) may be similar, but the EA method does not indicate the reference architecture.Term 9 [16] Therefore, it is necessary to define the elements that compose the system and their relationships. These two concepts have the major characteristics that they consider the manufacturing process and the organization involved in manufacturing as well as the customer requirement of what should be manufactured in the first place, and provide a guideline for the relationships among the elements.The thinking of axiomatic design is the concept that the information is mapped between the domain of customer, functional, physical, and process, and the design activity takes place. It is the thinking where, for example, the information for requirements in the customer domain that concerns design is mapped as the specification of the function in the functional domain, to realize the function. Likely, the same information is mapped in each domain, and then it is translated and processed in the optimal form in each domain. The mapping of that information is thought to occur interactively. When the elements extracted in subchapter 3.1 are applied to this concept, it is as follows. Since the customer domain designates the customer’s requirements, it is composed of needs, feature, and requirement elements. The functional domain is composed of function elements as stated above. The physical domain designates the design solution or


page 6