Vol.5 No.1 2012

Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−50−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) technology was emphasized. Since most of the papers were written by the researchers themselves, we judged that the papers expressed the important points of synthesis from the viewpoint of the researcher.In Type 2 Basic Research conducted to utilize the research result in society, there is the “technological synthesis,” and there are several basic types of synthesis. As the characteristics for different fields, although there were differences in diversity due to the number and size of elements, and the difference in the ways of reaching the goal, it became clear that a feedback process by comparing the combination of elemental technologies based on the strategy and the trial in society was necessary. It was recognized that the dynamic synthesis approach called the spiral-up where the feedback process is repeated several times through the interaction with the actual demand in society was extremely important.In addtion, to introduce the research result into society, it was found necessary to continuously promote something called the “synthesis for introduction to society.” While there are several steps in the synthesis phase, different approaches are necessary when the expansion of the industry is attempted, depending on whether the social demand is clear or not. Although the number of case studies is still insufficient, when considering the “technological innovation to society,” we must accumulate the examples of such syntheses and analyze their dynamism.7 AcknowledgementWe express our deep gratitude to the authors of the papers in writing this article. How much we were able to understand the individual research in the limited time is an issue, but we have made our best efforts in trying to understand the scenarios and the methodologies of the researches. However, I think there are cases where we failed to understand the authors’ intentions, and we will be glad to have them pointed out. We would also like to express our gratitude for the valuable advices we received from many people, including the comments in the workshops and other opportunities.TerminologyTerm 1:Synthesiology: an academic journal launched in 2008 for the purpose of accumulating “what ought to be done” to utilize the research results in society as knowledge. The journal publishes papers that describe the specific scenario and research procedures including the research goal and social value, and the process of integration of the elemental technologies. It shows the readers what approaches can be taken to practice research that may be useful in society, and provides a place for discussion.[1]Term 2:Full Research, Type 1 Basic Research, and Product Realization Research: “Full Research” is a research based on Type 2 Basic Research where the process from Type 1 Basic Research to Product Realization Research is conducted continuously and concurrently, by establishing a system where wide-ranging researchers can participate in specific issues that arise from the scenario in which the research theme is written all the way to the vision of future society.Type 1 Basic Research is the research for building the universal laws and principles by analyzing the unknown phenomena by observation, theoretical calculation, and Type 2 Basic Research is research where various known and new knowledge of multiple disciplines are combined and integrated in order to achieve the specific goal that has social value. It also includes the research that attempts to derive a general methodology. Product Realization Research is the research for the practical utilization of the new technology in society by using the result and knowledge obtained from Type 1 Basic Research, Type 2 Basic Research, and actual experiences.Term 3:Aufheben: “aufheben”(in German) is a concept in Hegelian dialectics, where the thesis and the contradicting antithesis are integrated to achieve the synthesis at higher level. In English it is called “sublation.”[3][4] References[1]Synthesiology Editorial Board: Messages from the editorial board, Synthesiology, 1(1), i (2008) (in Japanese) [Synthesiology English edition, 1(1), i-i (2008)].[2]H. Yoshikawa: Honkaku Kenkyu (Full Research), The University of Tokyo Press (2009) (in Japanese).[3]René Serreau: Hegel et l' hégélianisme, Presses universitaires de France (1971, c1962) (in French) [N. Takahashi, trans.: Hegel Tetsugaku, Hakusuisha (1973) (in Japanese)].[4]R. K. Lester and N. Kobayashi: Hopes for Synthesiology - Discussion with Prof. Lester, Synthesiology, 1(2), 139-143 (2008) (in Japanese) [Synthesiology English edition, 1(2), 131-137 (2008)].[5]J. Nishii: A challenge to the low-cost production of highly functional optical elements - Fabrication of sub-wavelength periodic structures via glass-imprinting process, Synthesiology, 1(1), 24-30 (2008) (in Japanese) [Synthesiology English edition, 1(1), 24-30 (2008)].[6]R. Funahashi and S. Urata: Development of a small-size cogeneration system using thermoelectric power generation - Recovery system of high-temperature waste heat by new thermoelectric oxides, Synthesiology, 1(2), 94-100 (2008) (in Japanese) [Synthesiology English edition, 1(2), 85-92 (2008)].[7]A. Kishimoto: A strategic approach for comparing different types of health risks - A risk assessment of toluene exposure using quality-adjusted life years, Synthesiology, 1(1), 31-37 (2008) (in Japanese) [Synthesiology English edition, 1(1), 31-


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