Vol.5 No.1 2012

Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−49−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) Table 2. Example of scenario for social introductionAs a method to get the evaluation of whether something has become a usable technology, sample provision and trials at exhibitions are done. For example, as in the research by Asakawa et al.,[28] the value of the technology can only be understood by having the people use the organic nanotube. Also, as seen in the research of electric wheelchair by Satoh and Sakaue,[27] in the case where the developer and the users are separate, the demands that the developer could not foresee must be incorporated. In the researches by Nakashima and Hashida[21] and Eto et al.,[50] the long-term trial in the field is effective in the extraction of technical issues such as reliability in software development. Such feedback through trial use can be a step that determines the additional technical development necessary to realize a product. When the major technical issues are solved and something that can be used as a product is created, still various factors are involved for such a product to diffuse into society. One factor that may be a trigger for diffusion is the technological impact that is highly visible, showing what can be accomplished. As seen in the researches by Ishikawa[51] and Ohba,[45] the standard for length that is portable and the real-time all-in-focus microscope are such examples.The people who visit exhibitions or request sample provision are those who are seeking new technology, and have an active attitude of incorporating the technology. On the other hand, there may be cases where a major change is not really wanted on site, and people may not necessarily be enthusiastic in solving the problem even if they understand that there is an issue. As seen in the research by Kinoshita and Takai[52] in the technological transfer for system verification, it may be necessary for the provider of the technology to actively enter the field and to work on the solution with the people on site. Also, there may be people who understand the superior technology but are hesitant to introduce the new technology due to the issues in manufacture technology. In such cases, rather than promoting the introduction rapidly, it may be better to obtain gradual understanding of the value of the technology and wait for the people to autonomously • Add use value of the product through perceptive leading user• Collaboration with different businesses, competition by collaboration and standardization with competing companies, construction of joint relationshipEstablishment and expansion of the industryPromote technological introduction to the stakeholder• Take time to obtain understanding of the value of new technology• Promote understanding by seeking problems jointly with the people on site Provision of the product for wide trial opportunity• Rent out prototypes to target users, and extract problems and necessary functions from open prototype• Show impact of realized function by creating the productDisplay elemental technology and provide samples• Show impact of new technology by demonstrating the function using the sample• Extract technological and research topics to be solved through feedback obtained from sample trialIn case where the demand is not clarified by industry• Construction of traceability system for metrology standard• Development of production technology that matches the new technologyIn case where the demand is clarified by industryinitiate the introduction, as stated by Takao and Sando who developed the ultraviolet protective cosmetics using the ceramics powder technology.[32]In the case where the scale of diffusion is large as in the consumer product, the perceptual impact to the consumer is necessary as well as the performance impact. As described in the study of induction cooking device by Kubo and Baba,[20] people called the sensitivity based (Kansei) lead users who can provide new ways of using the product to the consumer through the mass media may enhance the value of the product.In the case where the product is composed of an integrated system including the infrastructure, the collaboration within the industry is effective to realize both the performance improvement and cost reduction. As shown in the study by Ikeda et al.,[19] the competitive and the collaborative developments by the companies and the common area that would be standardized were strategically laid out in the process of realizing the car navigation system. This pushed the introduction to society.There are several steps in the synthesis, including the phase of elemental technology development where the technology is incorporated into the product, the phase of assembling from elemental technology to product, the phase of establishment as an industry after product realization is completed to some degree, and the phase where the product is diffused to the consumer. The effort differs in the case where the technological demand is clear and the case where the demand is unclear in industry. In the latter case, much difficulty is expected, and the impact of the product may be presented, active approaches to stakeholders may be done, as well as provision of samples, but there is also the strategy of “wait until the time is right” (Table 2).6 ConclusionThe synthesis methods were analyzed and characteristics were extracted from the papers of Synthesiology. The characteristics of the Synthesiology papers are: the researcher clarifies the social objective, sets the issues that must be overcome to achieve the objective, and clarifies the scenario for how to solve the issue; the research is conducted along the scenario; and the process of execution is written as a paper of synthesiology. The contents of 70 papers were analyzed based on Kobayashi’s three basic types, but we sometimes asked the authors to confirm their understanding. Whether the paper was strategic selection, breakthrough, or aufheben types depended on the difficulty of the realization of the core technology, but the decision of whether a paper was a breakthrough or aufheben type relied on our subjective view. In some papers, the overall strategy was emphasized, and in other papers, the breakthrough of the elemental


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