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Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−46−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) occurrences of earthquakes and their effects. In the risk assessment of the contamination of soil and ground water (individual strategy B in Fig. 9), as seen in the research by Komai et al.,[42] the fields of environmental science and safety science were integrated in addition to the elemental technologies of geology, the feedback was done through use in society according to the stages of advancement of the assessment method, and a refined assessment model was built.These individual strategies may focus on a target in response to the specific demand of the changing society, and the research based on the integrated strategy for the basic land information and technology is essential as its core. The geological map that is the basic information of the land, as seen in the research by Saito,[43] is the knowledge base in response to the various usages including disaster prevention, environment, industrial location, and resources. By integrating the various elemental technologies (such as geology, geophysics, and geochemistry) based on the integrated strategy of the geology field, the understanding of the geological phenomena is deepened, and the results are provided to society as the public asset in the form of regional geological maps. Also, as seen in the research by Wakita et al.,[44] the geological information is joined using the elemental technologies such as information technology according to the demand of society, and the result is provided as the seamless geological map of Japan on the Internet where the updated,latest data can be used any time. With the improvements by feedback, this is the spiral type synthesis.Many cases in the geological field take the strategic selection type synthesis (Table 1). The empirical model of the geology model is deepened through such research activities, and much deeper understanding of the geological phenomena can be reached by correlating with the deterministic model. Then, the improvement of prediction accuracy that can meet the social expectations may be realized. The research Fig. 10 Result of categorization into four types by fields (combinations types were counted into each type with overlap)in the geological field advances as the understanding of the geological phenomenon as a complex system takes the spiral interaction in response to the various social demands.4 Properties of the fields in the synthetic methodFrom the analysis of the synthetic research in the fields presented in the previous chapter, the characteristics of each field will be described in this chapter, and the common synthesis methodology will be presented in the following chapter. Table 1 shows the categorization of papers into the three types, aufheben, breakthrough, and strategic selection types, as well as the combinations of the three. Since there are not many combination types, to observe the characteristics of each field, it is assumed that combination types are composed of two or three types. The result of the overlapping count is shown in Fig. 10. Although this number is insufficient to present a quantitative discussion, differences by field can be seen. The breakthrough types dominate the fields of biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials and manufacturing, and environment and energy, particularly the R&D for low environmental load technology. These are fields where breakthroughs occur when there is good core technology. On the other hand, there are many strategic selection types in the human technology and the geology field. These are fields where the issues cannot be solved by one breakthrough technology. In all researches except one, strategic selection synthesis is done in the metrology and measurement science field, and it can be seen that multiple elements must be considered to construct the traceability system. On the other hand, spiral type can be seen in the fields of biotechnology, human technology, information technology and electronics, and geological survey and applied geoscience.In the fields of materials, electronic and photonic devices, manufacturing technology, and in the fields of chemical and physical metrology and measurement science, there are many researches where the elemental technologies are clearly defined and the synthesis methods are relatively clear. However, in the fields of geology, biotechnology, and human Fig. 11 Properties of the field in synthesis methodSpiralAufhebenBreakthroughStrategic selectionGeological survey/applied geoscienceMetrology/measurement scienceNanotechnology/materials/manufacturingInformation technology/electronicsLife science (human life technology)Life science (biotechnology)Environment/energy100 %90 %80 %70 %60 %50 %40 %30 %20 %10 %0 %23133112116416461188636MechanicalengineeringBiologyComplexsystemGeologyChemistryPhysicsNumber and size of elementsNanotechnology/materials/manufacturingMetrology/measurement scienceEnvironment/energyHuman technologyBiotechnologyInformation technology/electronicsComplexinteractivesystemMultidimensional element systemGeologicalsurvey/appliedgeoscience

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