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Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−45−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) while, in this case, the reverse thinking was used where the method was used for the quantitative analysis of known substances. Therefore, the important elemental technology was the search and selection of the measurement conditions totally different from the normal NMR (such as the adjustment of delay time of irradiation pulse or the optimization of audio filter). Also, the selection of the national reference material and the selection of the transfer material that allowed calibration of several substances were important points in constructing the efficient traceability system [requirement 3]. The SI traceability was guaranteed by using the cryoscopic method, a primary measurement method, as the check of adequacy [requirement 1]. Internationally, a proposal was made to employ this method as one of the standard measurement methods at the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) of the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), and worldwide agreement is being obtained [requirement 2]. As the supply system, through the collaborations (joint research, subcontract research, etc.) among AIST, national research centers, and private companies (manufacturers of reagent and clinical testing agents), the distribution of the reference material valued by this method was started from FY 2008. There are now over 100 kinds of substances tested. The overall structure of this research is summarized in Fig. 6 of the paper by Ihara et al.[38]As shown in the above two examples, the R&D scenario and the execution process are set up with the three requirements as the boundary condition, and these researches can be categorized as typical strategic selection types. Among the papers of metrology and measurement science field published in Synthesiology, the research of the x-ray generator driven by batteries for metrology technology by Suzuki[39] is a breakthrough type. There are 11 papers on metrology standard that fulfill the three requirements, and they can be categorized as strategic selection types (Table 1). (6) Geological survey and applied geoscience fieldThe characteristic of the researches in geology field is the spiral development through the interaction in response to the various changing social demands, as the integrated strategy is synthesized from the perspective of advancing the understanding of the whole geological phenomenon (Fig. 9). It is not an overstatement to say that the depth of the understanding of nature well into the past determines the social response to the industrial location, resource and environment, and disaster prevention.As an example of the long-term earthquake prediction (individual strategy A of Fig. 9), Sangawa established paleoseismology through the geological “breakthrough” of the discovery of liquefaction deposits at archeological sites.[40]Moreover, as the focused individual strategy of the research unit, in addition to geology and archeological, different fields such as geophysics and engineering were integrated, and this can be called the combination of the breakthrough and strategic selection types. Based on these results, the understanding of the history of active faults in Japan and the research of the physical model and strong ground motion model of the occurrences advanced. As seen in the study by Yoshioka,[41] these researches are strategically selected and combined and utilized in location selection and disaster prevention. Such methods are applied in the researches of past tsunami deposits by research units, and are contributing to the improvement in the accuracy of predicting long-term Fig. 9 Synthesis by individual and integrated strategy in the geological fieldKnowledge foundationInteractionUse,feedbackIntegrationBreakthroughUse, feedbackUse, feedbackFusion of fieldsPhysical modelActive fault historyPaleoseismologyIndividual strategy ALong-term earthquake predictionIndividual strategy BContamination risk assessmentSoil science, groundwater hydrology, environmental science, safety scienceBasic land informationComprehensive strategyPublication of the national seamless geological map on the InternetRegional geological mapGeologyGeophysicsGeochemistry…Integration(fusion of fields)IntegrationElemental technologyChanging social demandDisaster prevention, environment, location, resourceAdvancement of understanding of geological phenomena

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