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Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−43−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) possible by extremely fine molecular design and integrated technology, and the practical usages were pioneered through the joint efforts with companies (Fig. 7). Such breakthrough types are seen in four R&Ds including the study of non-combustible magnesium by Sakamoto and Ueno.[29]On the other hand, in the technological development of large single-crystalline diamond wafers by Chayahara et al.,[30]the elemental technologies such as the microwave plasma CVD method, control of abnormally growing particles, and the size increase were strategically selected and integrated. To upsize the wafers, which was one of the elemental technologies, the breakthrough called “repeated lateral growth” was employed, but the overall synthesis is promoted by the strategic selection. Such strategic selection type synthesis is seen in five R&Ds such as of optical catalysts technology. Also, Kobayashi et al. developed a material with high hardness and high strength using the Fe-Al intermetallic compound by combining the technologies for casting and powder metallurgy.[31] This is an example of the aufheben type synthesis in which a new method was created by combining the new dry powder metallurgy synthesis and the conventional casting method. Aufheben is also done in the R&D of UV protection cosmetics by Takao and Sando.[32]A characteristic example in the manufacturing field is the method where various products were developed using the aerosol deposition (AD) method by Akedo et al.[33] In this research, the AD method where the ceramics particles were solidified and densified at room temperature became a breakthrough, and through the strategic selective synthesis, the technology was applied to the manufacture of electrostatic chuck and MEMS scanner. The manufacturing method that employed the concept of “minimal manufacturing” with low cost, low environmental load, high function, and low resource consumption was synthesized. The R&D for PAN carbon fiber by Nakamura et al.[34] is also a combination of the breakthrough type and strategic selection type.In the study of the energy-saving process for ceramics manufacturing by Watari et al.,[35] focus is placed on the improvement of the binder technology upon carefully investigating the technologies that must be developed for energy saving, and excellent technology was established for evaluation and improvement. This is a combination of “strategic selection + breakthrough” types, in the sense that an improvement technology was established through the scientific approach upon strategic selection of the elemental technologies toward a clear objective. Moreover, in the study of rationalization of resource and energy use throughout the entire manufacturing process by Kita et al.,[36] the exergy (Gibbs free energy based on the environment) was analyzed in the entire process of aluminum manufacturing, and important guideline was obtained for the casting process that contributed to resource and energy conservation. This is a strategic selection type synthesis method in the sense that the analysis was conducted by continuously extracting the elements that must be evaluated toward a clear objective.The characteristics of the synthesis method for the nanotechnology, materials and manufacturing field are not greatly different from the synthesis of the hardware technology such as electronic devices. For materials, the result of the research is seldom launched in the market as a full product but is often used as elemental technology later, and the synthesis method is relatively clear in the case where the demand is the fulfillment of a certain performance or specification. However, in cases where there are interactions with various demands, the feedbacks are likely to be reflected in the synthesis method itself. On the other hand, while there is no major difference in the synthesis method for manufacturing technology, one of its characteristics is that one innovative elemental technology may entirely change the synthesis method. The categorization of this field is also shown in Table 1.(5) Metrology and measurement science fieldAs a characteristic of the standard and metrology field, particularly in metrology standard, the main assumption is that a highly reliable metrology standard (physical standard, chemical standard, or reference material) must be delivered to the hands of the end user. It is also assumed that such standards are recognized internationally. Therefore, the scenario is built and the R&D is conducted based on Fig. 7 Breakthrough type synthesis in the nanotechnology/materials/manufacturing fieldFig. 6 Social circulation type synthesis (revised Fig. 6 in Reference [26])Large-scale data collectionSensing technologyUser modelingDaily behavior prediction model by Bayesian networkPeripheral elemental technology CPeripheral elemental technology BService through integrated technologyGeneral knowledge modelImportant elemental technology AProduct realization technologySafety assessment technologyUse development technologyMolecular design technologyMass synthesis technologyDevelopment of mass synthesis method for organic nanotubeElemental technology 4Elemental technology 3Elemental technology 1Elemental technology 2Integrated technology

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