Vol.5 No.1 2012
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Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−42−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) selection synthesis. The development of the car navigation system by Ikeda et al. is similar.[19] In the field where a thing that is used by a person is synthesized, how the product will be used by the user (end user or the product designer) is estimated, and this is set as the goal. The basic method is to consider the elemental technologies necessary, and to synthesize the whole by strategically selecting the elemental technologies. There is also the aufheben type research by Kubo and Baba where the sensitivity based (kansei) lead user created a value different from the intent of the manufacturer of the IH cooking device,[20] and the strategic selection type and spiral type such as the Cyber Assist product where the users engaged in trials at exhibitions[21] (Table 1). The papers on the theory of service engineering are not included here.(3) Information technology and electronics fieldIn the information technology and electronics field, the synthesis methods differ slightly for the device technology field such as electronics and photonics, and for the software field. In the synthesis methodology of the device field, the individual elemental technologies are clear and independent from other elemental technologies. There is a main elemental technology that becomes the breakthrough, and the integrated technology is synthesized as these technologies are combined.A characteristic example is the research “Creating non-volatile electronics by spintronics technology” by Yuasa et al.[22] In this research, in addition to the extremely significant breakthrough where the giant tunnel magnetic resistance (TMR) effect was realized through the tunnel barrier of the magnesium oxide (MgO) crystals, there was a second breakthrough where the mass production technology was achieved by realizing the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) element with CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structure that used an extremely special crystal growth formation. As is shown in Fig. 5, this can be considered a sequential breakthrough type where the scientific breakthrough and innovative manufacturing technology came one after the other. Such breakthrough type synthesis can be seen in the R&D for the cryptographic module by Satoh et al.[23] In the fabrication of highly functional optical elements by Nishii mentioned earlier,[5] the imprinting method that used to be difficult under high temperature was combined with the glass mold method that was used in the glass treatment, to realize a highly precise high-function optical element. This can be considered a typical aufheben type in which the two methods that used to be difficult to execute simultaneously are combined. The development of silicon carbonate (SiC) semiconductor power devices by Arai[24] is an interesting process of extracting the elemental technologies and issues that had to be realized, realizing these technologies individually, integrating them, and then realizing a practical technology. This is a strategic selection type synthesis.In the papers of the software and systems field, the selection of elemental technologies and the interaction with the real society in the process of integration are the keys. In the construction of the system using middleware as in Tanaka’s Grid system,[25] the strategic selective selection and combination of the elemental technologies are shown, and the system construction is relatively clear as in the hardware system. Such strategic selection type synthesis is done in six R&Ds. In Motomura’s research,[26] the Bayesian net was used for modeling human behavior, and while it is a breakthrough type in the sense that sensing and interview technologies are added to the core technology, it is a synthesis of the combination of breakthrough and spiral type in the point that the user interaction is greatly significant as the “social circulation” (as indicated by Mochimaru,[26] Fig. 6).In the R&D of intelligent wheelchair by Satoh and Sakaue,[27] the breakthrough technology is the omnidirectional stereo camera. Using this technology as the core, other technologies were selected strategically to synthesize the electric wheelchair, and the result of the trial by users was fed back to the development. The combination of the three syntheses is described in the paper (Table 1).In the hardware field, the definition and selection of the elemental technologies and the synthesis method using them are relatively straightforward and clear, and the synthesis of middleware is similar. However, in the software and application fields where there are greater and more significant interactions between humans and environment, the defined and selected elemental technologies are not integrated in one direction, but they evolve and deepen through the interaction with the social environment. (4) Nanotechnology, materials and manufacturing fieldFor the nanotechnology, materials, and manufacturing field, an example is the mass synthesis method of the organic nanotube by Asakawa et al.[28] This research involves the development of mass synthesis technology of organic nanotube and this was expected to be applied to wide-ranging fields by filling the tube with nanoparticles and proteins. This technology is a typical example of the seeds driven breakthrough type. However, mass production was made Fig. 5 Breakthrough type synthesis in the information technology/electronics field2nd generation TMR headMTJ element with CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structureMonocrystalline MgO-MTJ elementNonvolatile electronics through spintronics technologyImportant elemental technology 1Important elemental technology 2Development of mass production technologyDevelopment of new material and new devicePractical technologyIntegrated technology

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