Vol.5 No.1 2012
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Research paper : Analysis of synthetic approaches described in papers of the journal Synthesiology (N. Kobayashi et al.)−38−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.5 No.1 (2012) the sublation of two opposing theses),Term 3 [3] (2) breakthrough type (method in which the important elemental technology is combined with peripheral technology and grown into integrated technology), and (3) strategic selection type (method in which the elemental technologies are strategically selected and synthesized).[4] These three types were extracted from the 12 research papers published early after the launch of Synthesiology.One example of (1) aufheben type is the research by Nishii “A challenge to the low-cost production of highly functional optical elements”[5] that involves the combination of glass mold and imprint methods. In this research, a new technology was produced by the integration of the two methods that were considered impossible to coexist. Based on this example, in this paper, the aufheben type is used in a wide-ranging sense in this paper to describe the “complex synthesis method among multiple elements that were thought impossible to integrate.” The concept specifically contains the integration and synthesis of the “structure,” “function,” “entity,” and others.The example of (2) breakthrough type is “Development of a small-size cogeneration system using thermoelectric power generation” by Funabashi and Urata.[6] This is an example where the discovery of layered cobalt oxides, an excellent thermoelectric material, became a breakthrough, and the integrated technology was formed by the addition of peripheral elemental technologies.The example of (3) strategic selection type is the “A strategic approach for comparing different types of health risks” by Kishimoto.[7] In this research, the process of synthesis is the serial selection of several elemental technologies to achieve the research objective that is the risk assessment of chemical substances. Figure 1 shows the conceptual diagram of the basic types of synthesis method. These are extremely basic raw processes in the synthesis method. The processes where these are combined concurrently or in multiple steps, or where the improvements are made through the interaction of demand and actual environment can be observed. These raw processes were kept in mind when the following considerations were made. Table 1 shows the categorization of the types of synthesis by fields, and it includes the categorization of the combined types as well as single basic types. These types will be explained in detail below.3 Analysis of the synthesis method for each technological field(1) Environment and energy fieldThe researches categorized in the environment and energy field include the extremely wide-ranging topics from the assessment technology such as environment and risk assessments, behavior and control of environmental load substances, renewable energy, energy saving, and production efficiency. Diverse methodologies have been proposed in the Synthesiology papers. However, following characteristics can be seen: 1) there are clear social demands such as the reduction of environmental load substances, CO2 emission control, and compliance to social and administrative regulations; 2) to repond to these, “compromising” type or multidimensional technological integration is conducted, such as the multistep linkage of elemental technologies that are supported by science; and 3) the existing technology is further advanced through the review of elemental technologies and re-synthesis from the engineering standpoint.For example, for the social demand of “comparing the risks of different kinds of chemical substances,” it is necessary to express the scale of risk by a common index. However, since the necessary elemental data used in conventional risk assessment are insufficient, the necessary elemental data are determined by breaking down the new social demands, and the method of making estimates from the existing data is considered. The calculation of risk becomes possible based on the common index by re-integrating the elements obtained.[7] Therefore, the method taken is to strategically select the elemental technologies that match the social demands and to integrate them, and this is the strategic selective type synthesis as explained in the previous chapter.An example of the technological development to reduce the environmental load substance is the development of the catalyst production for clean diesel fuel by Yoshimura and Toba.[8] In the detoxification of the diesel exhaust, there is the social demand to dramatically decrease the sulfur content in the diesel fuel. To do so, it is necessary to develop a high performance hydrodesulfurizing catalyst. The authors identified the breakthrough point as the catalyst preparation method, and broke down the topic into several elements necessary for this technology and clarified the division of roles with the joint researchers (organization). By further breaking down the topic, key elemental technologies were Fig. 1 Basic types of synthesisIntegrated technologyElemental technology APeripheral elemental technology CIntegrated technologyElemental technology CElemental technology BPeripheral elemental technology BIntegrated technologyImportant elemental technology AElemental technology BElemental technology A3.Strategic selection type2.Breakthrough type1.Aufheben type

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