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Paper supplement to “Study on the PAN carbon-fiber-innovation for modeling a successful R&D management” (O. Nakamura et al.)−123−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.4 No.2 (2011) society (patent, papers, reporting sessions, and others) were always planned according to the progress of the research and contact with industry. To propel the results, the scale of the research funding was controlled carefully according to growth. (Page 159 right, subchapter 3.1(2))” The facts that GIRIO created the Shindo Lab and allowed the participation of new researchers may support this point. This was an organizational research management within GIRIO and the paper does not state that an organizational (systematic) research was executed involving the companies.The “daily exchange with companies (Page 160 left, subchapter 3.2(2))” much like the recent innovation hub function may be useful for the above objective. It is rather questionable that such activities were done intentionally back then, but now, if the corporate researcher spontaneously visits the national institute to engage in dynamic discussions, the time needed to overcome the “valley of death” can be somewhat shortened.4 Explanation of the PAN carbon fiber developersPage 160 left, subchapter 3.3Original: Through the presentation of Dr. Shindo at the Carbon Conference in the United States in 1963, the British carbon researchers realized the advantage of using PAN fiber and started research of PAN carbon fibers.The following references are added as the basis of this statement.In Reference [17], there is a description, “Shindo’s research result was presented at the Carbon Conference in the United States held in June 1963, and this touched off the PAN carbon fiber researches in Europe and the United states.” Also, the following sentence says, “The only conceivable reason that RAE UK started to work with PAN was because it was stimulated by Shindo’s presentation.”There is a similar statement in Page 24 left of Reference [18]. The following description can be seen in Reference [19]: “W. Watt et al., Nature 213, 690-691 (1967) and Nature 220, 835 (1968); referenced Shindo’s earlier work, and PAN carbon fibres were first made by Shindo and….” 5 Timeline from the first invention to the innovationPage 160 right, subchapter 3.3Original: …And technological transfers were done 10 years prior to the actual marketing of the product.The time when the product was actually marketed is considered to be 1972, as described in Reference [20]: “The fishing pole and Black Shaft (author’s note: name of the actual product) using the carbon fiber reinforced plastic was known in the world from around 1972.” On the other hand, the “technical guidance” by Shindo et al. called the “manufacture method of graphite fiber” provided to Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd. and Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. was given in 1960, and the timeline is as stated in the original text. The point of this paper is to express the difficulty of the innovation. From the first invention (1959) to the achievement of something that was truly useful (product), diverse and voluminous researches as well as the work of individual researchers, efforts, and time were necessary. The paper does not attempt to describe the ten-year span in a strict manner like a chronology of technological history.

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