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Paper supplement to “Study on the PAN carbon-fiber-innovation for modeling a successful R&D management” (O. Nakamura et al.)−122−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.4 No.2 (2011) and raised people’s enthusiasm (Page 155 right, subchapter 2.2)” given as an example of the managerial background that produced research results was confirmed through the interviews with the people involved, according to the descriptions in Osaka Kogyo Gijutsu Shikenjo Gojunenshi (Fifty Years History of GIRIO)[11]. This reference material records the increase in the number of research publications and patent applications, the building of the radiation chemistry lab, the opening of the technical consultation office, and the concentration from Daini (Osaka) to Ikeda. These are the indications of the managerial efforts. Moreover, the description “…and we could see that this was an organizational effort (Page 156 left, subchapter 2.2)” is based on the fact that the “research on fibrous graphite” set by the organization (GIRIO) was included amongst the “carbon material research” according to the description in the 1959 GIRIO Annual Report[9].Also, the principle of filing the patent application before publication at the academic society was followed. The importance of patents started to be recognized at the national research institutes and universities after 1999, when the Act on Special Measures for Industrial Revitalization (Article 30), a Japanese version of the Bayh-Dole Act, went into effect. This vitalized the procurement of intellectual properties by the public institutions, and their importance increased drastically. It should be particularly noted that the principle of “patents first” was executed shortly after World War II in the 1950s and ‘60s. The authors noted this point, and considered this as one of the proofs where the organizational strategy and individual spontaneity could be compatible.2 Explanation of the actions for quick development for innovationPage 158 left-right, subchapter 2.5(1)Original: One of the authors has heard that when a corporate researcher obtained certain results after solving a problem or produced new proposals after getting help by technological information obtained from daily conversations at GIRIO, the researcher went on to company presentation without mentioning that the idea was picked up at GIRIO.In the context of this paper, this expression is limited to the “results obtained by the individual effort of the corporate researcher based on the information gained through the daily conversations at GIRIO”. This is not seen as a problem. Instead, the paper describes that there was a general awareness by GIRIO at the time, that even if there was a serendipitous inspiration based on the information obtained, the company may not necessarily make it clear that there was a contribution of the GIRIO information behind a certain result. If some source information leads to some inspiration or research development that produces an innovation, the range of opinion exchange will expand and the possibility of additional development grows when the source information and the thought process that lead to the inspiration are introduced in the course of the discussion, rather than reporting the conclusion only.3 Explanation on the reduction of the “valley of death” in innovationPage 158 right, subchapter 2.5(2)Original: the primary group and the secondary groupThis grouping was done for the sake of convenience by the authors, to enhance the reader’s understanding. This refers to the necessity of background research in new material development, where one looks for something better than the primary material but can not find any, as this is a common occurrence in material research. (This is based on the information obtained from the interviews with Dr. Shindo and other people involved.)When the new material is discovered and is recognized and praised by society, it is necessary to confirm whether the new material is truly better than the other materials in terms of competitiveness in performance, cost, reliability, and durability. Of course, such survey should be completed at the time of announcement, but further considerations are required taking into account the manufacturing process as well as the use and application of the material. The other companies of the same industry with different ways of thinking or companies of different industries will enter the research as they seek commercial opportunities. In case the standard of the material is not yet set, more companies may develop interest as they pursue the potential. Such a situation is included in the concept of “valley of death” in a wider sense. In this paper, the primary group and the secondary group are terminologies introduced to explain this phase. The companies that set the “product” and send it out to society comprise the “primary group”, while the companies that are interested and seek different commercial opportunities are called the “secondary group”. The “secondary group” is necessary to thicken the layer of the field, but often their projects fail to produce intended results. Such negative information are not released to society and become dead storage. In general, the range that can be covered by a single research or a single company tends to be limited. Therefore, to achieve innovations, the government must create a mechanism for efficiently overcoming such a “valley of death”, though this may be a difficult order to fulfill.As an attempt or a revision by the national institute, though the effect was partial, the authors took notice of the following: “The ways in which the results were presented to

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