Vol.3 No.3 2010
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Research paper : An optimum design method utilizing a strategic system design concept (J. Fukuda et al.)−191−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.3 No.3 (2010) No matter how the system is physically excellent, it cannot be realized unless it is also excellent in the value space. To realize a system, one must design the value system, which is a system that generates actual value.3.2 System of other stakeholders and the supersystemThe actual system has mutual interaction with the systems of other stakeholders in both the physical and value systems (Fig. 4).The system is also incorporated into the “supersystem” composed of multiple physical entities and stakeholders. The supersystem is a large physical and value system that influences the existence, performance, and value of the system including, for example, the global environment or the social system. The supersystem influences the individual systems in various ways and sets requirements. A system changes according to the other systems and the supersystem, and must optimize itself accordingly.In the case of datacenters, the requirement is to minimize CO2 emissions through the regulations by the social system such as public opinion or environment tax imposed for the purpose of preventing global warming.In the conventional system design, optimization to meet this requirement was met in accordance with the perspective of a single stakeholder who possessed the system. The system was designed to maximize value for the single stakeholder, and in many cases, value for other stakeholders and the resource allotment were not taken into consideration.For example, in the case of datacenters, attempts were made to reduce the CO2 emissions by achieving efficiency of the devices in the datacenter only, such as optimizing air conditioning infrastructure that cools servers.However, drastic reduction of CO2 emissions is physically difficult with the improvement of datacenter facilities alone. Moreover, in the value space, it is difficult for a single company to increase its value (profit) because expensive facility investment may suppress profit margins and furthermore, environmental taxes may be imposed.For major issues such as environmental improvement required by the supersystem, there is a limit in the optimization effort that can be handled within the system by a single stakeholder.3.3 Design optimization using the strategic system designOn the other hand, issues required to be addressed by the supersystem are also placed on other stakeholders. Therefore, design optimization using the “strategic system design” is an attempt to optimize the requirements from the supersystem by combining the systems of multiple stakeholders, and to raise the values of all stakeholders involved.The physical systems of the individual stakeholders exist in a common physical space. Therefore, they can be optimized as a single system as they are influenced equally by a common physical law and can be combined through physical exchange. This is the “total physical system design” (Fig. 3). Using datacenters as an example, waste heat can be reused for heating greenhouses.The result of the optimization of a physical system may not necessarily mean optimal value for the stakeholders of different systems. For example, reusing waste heat from the datacenter may be a cost reduction to the farmer, but it will be a cost increase for the datacenter company due to the need for additional facilities. To realize the waste heat reuse system, it is necessary to design a value system that increases the values for the two stakeholders, or both the datacenter company and the farmer. This need is coined as “total value system design” (Fig. 3).It is necessary to implement some mechanism for adjusting the value, such as a contract whereby the farmer pays the cost (adjustment cost) of using the waste heat to the datacenter company.The “strategic system design” can be defined as the optimization by designing the “total physical system” and the “total value system” between the systems of different stakeholders.4 Proposal for a composite datacenter through strategic system design 4.1 Total physical system design for a composite datacenter through strategic system design To achieve optimization in response to the social requirement for the reduction of CO2 emissions based on the concept Fig. 4 Systems of other stakeholders surrounding the datacenter and the supersystemConsumerDatacenter companyPowercompanyPowerplantPowersupplyNetworkInternetserviceWaste heatAirconditionerGreenhousefarmerAgriculturalproductBoilerOil refinerycompanyFoodSupersystem: global environmentSupersystem: Social system (government) ElectricitycostSalesNaturaldisasterLoss due todisasterTaxPublicopinionEnvironmentmeasure subsidyEnvironmenttaxAdjustmentcostManufacturerCO2FuelServerFacilitycostPublicserviceEnvironmenttaxEnvironmenttaxEnvironmenttax

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