Vol.2 No.3 2009
Research paper : Two types of lead users in a model for the transfer of technology into households (Y. Kubo et al.)−185−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.2 No.3 (2009) realize the functions needed for living. The society evaluated the produced artifacts, and selected those with excellent performance and price. In addition, certain lead users responded actively to an artifact, improved it from his/her perspective, and proposed the redesigned artifact to society. There are series of researches in engineering, economics, and business administration on the evolution and mechanism of artifacts-. The following section describes the works by Petrosky who investigated “why there are four prongs on a fork,” and David who analyzed “how the typewriter keyboard arrangement became QWERTY.”In the case of forks, the failure of the current products or the shape that made it difficult to use led to improvement. When cutting the food and transporting it to the mouth, people did so using their hands and teeth in prehistoric age, and a knife was used when it was invented. Later two knives were used. One knife was used to hold the food and transport it to the mouth while the other was used to cut the food. The knife for holding and transporting the food evolved into a spoon, a two-prong fork, a three-prong fork, and then the current four-prong fork, as the deficiencies of the previous products were improved. What consists as deficiency differs by person and by situation, and therefore no perfect product exists. However, the diffusion in society occurred through development of manners used when people gathered for banquets and through books on etiquette. The form of the fork evolved continuously as the process was repeated. The users played important roles in the evolution of the fork.In case of the keyboard, the keyboard arrangement was influenced by users who typed and by schools that provided typing lessons, in addition to the manufacturers that led the development. The keyboard of the typewriter created for the first time in the late 1860s was arranged in alphabetical order ABCD from the left, and later, different manufacturers employed various arrangements. While various arrangements coexisted, users started to compete for typing speed, and contest for typing speed and typing schools that taught shorthand appeared. There, touch-typing where one memorized the keyboard and typed without looking became the standard. Since everyone protested against changes in the arrangement that they learned, ultimately, the current arrangement that was the most familiar to most people was employed. The keyboard arrangement was selected to benefit the user communities such as contests and schools, and external influence beyond the market mechanism acted in this selection processNote 1).3 Framework of this surveyThe IH cooking system analyzed in this paper is composed of diverse supplementary components for cooking using IH, as well as IH heat source. To investigate who developed them and how this IH cooking system was developed, the following surveys were conducted.First, a database was built by gathering media information (books, cooking magazines, fashion magazines, and television commercial messages (TVCM)) on IH cooking, and the time-series change was analyzedNote 2). Specifically, time-series analysis of the photographs of IH cooking (267 books, 57 cooking magazines, 52 fashion magazines, and 64 magazine ads) and TVCMs of IH cooking (31 cases), with subject limited to frying pan cooking, was conducted for how the new cooking method using IH was introduced by the media from 2002 to 2008Note 3). The information for the media survey is listed in Appendix A.Second, interview survey was conducted to investigate who proposed the method and how the cooking method that appeared in conjunction with the introduction of IH was developed, and for what reason it diffused. Specifically, people who contributed to the development and diffusion of the cooking method were extracted from the media information, and interviews were conducted from May to November 2008. The information for the interviews is listed in Appendix B.4 Time-series analysis of the IH cooking method transmitted through the mediaIn the IH cooking transmitted through the media, the method in which frying is done by holding the silicon resin spatulas in both hands, as shown in Fig. 1 photograph, was introduced for the first time in 2004. The novelty of this cooking method was as follows. First, the silicon resin spatula was used rather than a ladle, a wooden spatula, cooking chopsticks, or a turner that were traditionally used for cooking over heat. The silicon spatula is a silicon version of the rubber spatula that had been in use. It has been imported and sold in Japan since 1999. However, at the time, the awareness of silicon spatula in Japan was extremely low. Rubber spatulas could not be used for cooking over heat, and it was mainly used for confectionery Fig. 1 Cooking method in which silicon spatulas are held in both hands.