Vol.11 no.3 2019

Commentary : Contributing to the SpaceWire international standard (H. HIHARA et al.)−152−Synthesiology - English edition Vol.11 No.3 (2018) universities, and companies participate in the design standard WG that is a configurator’s place to establish the standard. The members in universities and research institutes often act as observers in the standard establishment process, and may become actors during the R&D. Also, the manufacturing companies that normally act as actors may become observers as system vendors. This is thought to be due to the background that the Japanese space development has been conducted jointly by government and private companies. In this case, it is possible to incorporate output from an overseas configurator’s place, and it is also possible to quickly realize international standards in products. This is shown in Fig. 6(a). It is not uncommon that the observer places an order to the vendor who is the actor based on proprietary specifications, without consulting the configurator. In such cases, the subcontract specications correspond to the arrow that points from the observer to the actor, but the content of subcontract specifications in many cases is based on the mutual interaction between the actor and the observer, and the arrow should go in both directions. Only after accumulation of experiences, the standard is established formally at the congurator’s place, and its promotion is done by the actor. The configuration shown in Fig. 6(a) has no arrows of inuence that conicts with the European behavior pattern and can be superimposed well. This is shown in Fig. 6(b).The SpW WG, as mentioned above, accepts participants of those who stayed outside Europe to the observer’s place, and has the mechanism of unitarily incorporating the output of the observers’ place into the configurators’ place. The Japanese participants participated in the observer’s place with the consciousness of both the observer and the actor. This consciousness did not cause conflict in the Working Group Committees. This was in contrast with the conflict between the American and European participants generated by the American way of thinking of bidirectional awareness in the observer’s and congurator’s places.The participants from Japan had a unified way of thinking of the actor and the observer, and the example of SDS-1 mentioned earlier shows that the Japanese behavior pattern shown in Fig. 6 ts well with the European behavior pattern shown in Fig. 4. The results of the American preceding development could be brought into the configurator’s place without stress through the Japanese proposals, and it is thought that this contributed to bridging the gap between the USA and Europe.On the other hand, issues Japan faced became apparent. For the technological investigations discussed in the SpW WG, there were not any apparent differences in terms of the technology level between USA’s National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Europe’s ESA, and Japan. However, Europe and USA had many orbital demonstrations of new technologies and plenty of examples of new equipment being used. What is the cause of this difference? The participants of the SpW WG included about 14 countries from Europe, USA, the Far East, and Asia. The countries engaged in their original development, and some are leading in demonstrations of new technology. The performances were referenced to determine specications to be aimed at. Risks of practical utilization were indicated from various perspectives. Even if the problem was pointed out, alternative plans were proposed actively. The claims and proposals of Japan were adopted without discrimination if they were reasonable, backed by experience, and matched the direction of SpW WG. The fact that there was a place for gathering Fig. 6 Behavior pattern of Japanese participants(a) Domestic standard establishment process; (b) combination with European de jure standard establishment process.Actor and observer ActorActorCongurator’s placeCongurator’s placeObserver’s placeObserver’s placeSubjectSubjectObserver, congurator, and actor(a)(b)

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