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−216−Synthesiology Vol.5 No.3(2012)The period was named “nightmare stage” by Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, President of AIST, and historical scientist Joseph Hatvany. The “valley of death” was by Vernon Ehlers in 1998 when he was Vice Chairman of US Congress, Science and Technology Committee. Lewis Branscomb, Professor emeritus of Harvard University, called this gap as “Darwinian sea” where natural selection takes place.Type 2 Basic Research This is a research type where various known and new knowledge is combined and integrated in order to achieve the specific goal that has social value. It also includes research activities that develop common theories or principles in technology integration.Full Research This is a research type where the theme is placed within the scenario toward the future society, and where framework is developed in which researchers from wide range of research fields can participate in studying actual issues. This research is done continuously and concurrently from Type 1 Basic Research (Note 4) to Product Realization Research (Note 5), centered by Type 2 Basic Research (Note 2).Type 1 Basic ResearchThis is an analytical research type where unknown phenomena are analyzed, by observation, experimentation, and theoretical calculation, to establish universal principles and theories. Product Realization ResearchThis is a research where the results and knowledge from Type 1 Basic Research and Type 2 Basic Research are applied to embody use of a new technology in the society.Note 1 Note 2Note 3Note 4Note 5Edited by Synthesiology Editorial BoardPublished by National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)Synthesiology Editorial BoardEditor in Chief: S. IchimuraSenior Executive Editor: N. Kobayashi, M. Seto Executive Editors: M. Akamatsu, M. Tanaka, H. Tateishi, S. Togashi, Y. Hasegawa, K. Naito, H. TayaEditors: H. Akoh, S. Abe, K. Igarashi, H. Ichijo, K. Ueda, A. Etori, K. Ohmaki, Y. Owadano, M. Okaji, A. Ono, A. Kageyama, T. Kubo, C. Kurimoto, K. Sakaue, T. Shimizu, K. Chiba, E. Tsukuda, H. Nakashima, K. Nakamura, Y. Baba, J. Hama, K. Harada, Y. Hino, N. Matsuki, K. Mizuno, Y. Mitsuishi, N. Murayama, M. Mochimaru, A. Yabe, H. YoshikawaPublishing Secretariat: Publication Office, Public Relations Department, AISTContact: Synthesiology Editorial Boardc/o Website and Publication Office, Public Relations Department, AISTTsukuba Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8568, JapanTel: +81-29-862-6217 Fax: +81-29-862-6212 sURL: http://www.aist.go.jp/synthesiology*Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited.Message

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