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Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 10 Issue 1 (Japanese version Mar. 2017)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of a compact, onboard slurry icemaker to rapidly produce optimal ice for maintaining freshness of marine products [PDF:684KB]

Hiroshi Nagaishi et al.

This paper describes the process whereby the use of frozen seawater in slurry form was considered to maintain the freshness of marine products, and an icemaker that is low in cost, that can supply slurry ice stably, and that can be installed on fishing vessels was developed. To solve the issues that were difficult to solve by conventional technology, a new icemaker was successfully developed by fusing the technologies of mechatronics, icemaking, and freshness assessment. The paper is detailed documentation of a success story of industry-academia-government collaboration where a company, a public research institute, and a national research institute brought the techniques and know-how of their respective expertise together and worked toward one goal.
 

Standardization of dimethyl ether (DME) fuel specifications [PDF:1.1MB]

Mitsuharu Oguma

Dimethyl ether is regarded promising for various uses as one of the alternatives to fossil fuel, but standardization of fuel quality is necessary in introducing this product to the market. This paper describes the details of the international standardization efforts. It is a very interesting paper that also discusses the process of defining fuel quality and test methods, details of round robin tests by institutions around the world, the adjustments among multiple countries, and the difficulty of standardization when multiple stakeholders are involved.
 

A study on high-density recording with particulate tape media for data storage systems [PDF:1.2MB]

− On the process of introducing barium-ferrite tape media to the market −

Takeshi Harasawa et al.

The paper presents the re-accelerated achievement of high density in magnetic tape systems, where barium-ferrite was focused on as new material that surpassed the performance of metal magnetic material that was showing limit in achieving high density. This development was in response to the rapid increase of information and data handled in society. To realize the barium-ferrite tape, materials and peripheral technologies were developed, including tape manufacturing technology within the company and high-sensitive magnetic head and signal processing technologies outside the company. The paper outlines the process by which the de facto standardization of barium-ferrite tape was established for data storage.
 

Development of a cell microarray chip system for early and accurate malaria diagnosis [PDF:720KB]

− Finding one parasite in 2 million erythrocytes for elimination of malaria −

Muneaki Hashimoto et al.

This paper explains the development of a quick and highly sensitive diagnostic method for malaria, which is one of the three major infectious diseases. Under the concept that it is necessary to determine the severity of infection as well as the presence of infection in order to be usable at medical settings in developing countries, a series of research was conducted including comparison of various diagnostic methods, development of a cellular chip, development of a detection method using the chip, and a verification test in Africa jointly with universities. The paper details the efforts toward social implementation of a new diagnostic method.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 9 Issue 4 (Japanese version Nov. 2016)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of a framework for risk tradeoff analysis of chemical substance substitution [PDF:1.8MB]

− An approach to risk assessment using relative comparison −

Masashi Gamo et al.

While it is important to reduce the risks of chemical substances, if there is a possibility that substitute substances may cause different risks, the way to assess these risks is extremely important. Gamo (AIST) et al. present a methodology for introducing a common index to conduct relative quantitative comparison for the size of risks with differing factors, and the way to actually apply this method to risk assessment. The method is applied to existing case studies to actually investigate the effectiveness. These results can be applied to risk assessments of various fields, not limited to chemical substances, and this is a highly significant research.
 

A first empirical analysis of JIS lifespan [PDF:2.5MB]

− Implications for the review system of de jure standards −

Suguru Tamura

The Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) is a set of standards and references for various products in Japan, and while it is expected to contribute to innovation, the review of the standards is done according to regular schedule and lacks flexibility. Tamura (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry) statistically calculates how the sustained period of standards differs, by utilizing various data such as the form of standard, technological category, and presence of ISO standards for about 4,500 JIS standards. Based on this result, he discusses the necessities for optimizing the review period of standards that may contribute to innovation and for achieving the efficiency of standard management. It is an insightful paper.
 

Development of EUPS for analyzing electronic states of topmost atomic layer [PDF:2.9MB]

− Materialization of laser-produced plasma source application and EUPS observed fascinating surface −

Toshihisa Tomie et al.

The topmost atom layer of substances is an important region that controls the catalyst functions, surface reactions, electric conductivity, and others, and its observation and control are immediate issues for many precision material design. Tomie (AIST) et al. have, over the years, engaged in the development of extreme ultraviolet-excited photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS) that uses a plasma source produced by ultra-short pulse lasers, as well as surface measurement technology using this spectroscopy. This paper is a comprehensive report on the development and use of the technology. Specifically, extremely interesting cases of application are shown including observation of trace contamination of the topmost atom layer, a non-charge phenomenon of insulating films, electric conductivity, and catalyst activity. Since characteristic surface analysis that is difficult by other methods can be done, it is hoped that more users will utilize this method in the future.
 

A revolutionary technical development to revitalize Japanese forestry [PDF:3.5MB]

− A proposal for a portable tree felling manipulator to address specific properties of Japanese forestry −

Yuko Shirai

Forestry in Japan is facing difficulty to be established as an industry, due to unique natural environment and social systems. Shirai (Waseda University) states the necessity of technological development that enables industrial autonomy, and presents demonstration experiments of an originally developed tree-felling manipulator and its potential for utilization in the industry. The paper is characteristic because the specific scenario and course are laid down for the revitalization of forestry, and a unique “technological design theory that thoroughly emphasizes the interaction with environment” is developed. The methodology can be applied to various other fields in the future, and is very interesting.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 9 Issue 3 (Japanese version Oct. 2016)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of human-friendly polymeric actuators based on nano-carbon electrodes [PDF:1.8MB]

− Toward the practical realization of artificial muscles −

Asaka (AIST) realized soft actuators that employ ion conductive polymers as base materials using carbon nanotubes as electrode materials. The elemental technologies and research scenario are introduced by looking at ways to utilize the properties of large deformation at low-voltage and in thin film form with excellent processability. The prototype was made and evaluation tests of the thin and light film braille displays were conducted by joint research with a company, and it is an excellent example by which the social value of the product has been increased.
 

High quality large-area graphene synthesis with high growth rate using plasma-enhanced CVD [PDF:2.5MB]

− Toward a high throughput process −

Hasegawa (AIST) et al. aimed for the use of transparent conductive films and demonstrated the superiority of a synthesis method using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a graphene manufacturing technology for large area, high quality, and high throughput. Through the discussions including the differences with a thermal CVD process and the comparison to competing technologies, we are able to understand the R&D scenario that led to successful development of large-area graphene transparent conductive films. Particularly impressive is the detailed data analyses that are the basis of the solutions of each elemental technology.
 

Radioactive cesium decontamination technology for ash [PDF:2.9MB]

− Utilization and application of nanoparticles as an adsorbent −

In response to urgent governmental demands to decontaminate the radioactive material that leaked from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Kawamoto (AIST) et al. developed in an extremely short time the decontamination technology for ash contaminated by radioactive cesium using Prussian blue nanoparticle materials. This synthesiological paper draws our attention because it is a summary of the technologies and overall scenario that enabled achievement of results in an extremely abnormal environment and condition, including the overview of the whole problem to original research strategies, the exchange with researchers of different fields, and the collaboration with stakeholders of companies, the government, local governments, and local residents.
 

Development of HASClay® as a high-performance adsorption material [PDF:3.5MB]

− Developing adsorbents for energy conservation systems from a kind of clay nanoparticle −

Suzuki (AIST) et al. developed synthetic clay mineral HASClay® under a clearly set scenario aiming for application as desiccant air conditioning adsorbents, starting from the basic research on the structures and functions of allophene and imogolite that are natural clay minerals. It is interesting to see the course by which they felt the limitation of natural materials from the perspectives of low cost, synthesis cost, mass production, and adsorption functions, and embarked on creating a synthesized product that met all conditions through joint research with companies, while oscillating between basics and application.

 

A super-growth method for single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis [PDF:4.7MB]

− Development of a mass production technique for industrial application −

Hata (AIST) developed and realized the industrial mass production technology that was composed of totally different elemental technologies from the lab-scale innovative synthesis method for single-walled carbon nanotubes that he originally developed. This is truly world-leading nanotechnology where the passion of the author and the company contributed to its realization. This paper is worth reading as the diverse elemental technologies that were determined essential, their advancement, and the scenario for integration through corporate collaboration are presented concisely, under a research policy conceived by the author.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 9 Issue 2 (Japanese version May. 2016)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development and utilization of geochemical reference materials [PDF:1.2MB]

− Reliability improvement in the analysis of geological materials −

This paper is a presentation of the history and the research scenario for providing more than 50 highly reliable geochemical reference materials over 50 years. The scenario was revised frequently and new research plans were created as the researchers looked at the changes in R&D and the ways in which reference materials are used, the changes in reference materials themselves due to the advancement of analysis devices, as well as changes in the world trends. Here, we can read the history in which the Geological Survey of Japan with its strengths has been leading the world in both the development and research of reference materials.
 

Three-dimensional urban geological map [PDF:1.6MB]

− New style of geoinformation in an urban area −

This is a summary of the research result regarding a 3D geological ground map that was created for the purpose of utilizing geoinformation in hazard map compilation and urban planning to prevent and mitigate earthquake disasters. The display and modeling of a 3D geological ground map in the heavily populated urban areas have reached a very fine level, and future advancement is greatly expected. Also, multiple elemental technologies including the data collected by local governments are integrated to construct a framework that is useful and easy to use for society. It is a challenging topic that has potential to make contribution to society.
 

Constructing a system to explore shallow velocity structures using a miniature microtremor array [PDF:2.3MB]

− Accumulating and utilizing large microtremor datasets −

Looking at the shallow ground where damages by strong motion and liquefaction are expected in an earthquake, this paper presents the technological development of a microtremor array that allows accurate exploration of the subsurface S wave velocity structure. This is an example of R&D in which the core technology, on which one of the authors have engaged in R&D over a long period of time and realized an array exploration method, underwent mutual complementation and strengthening through theoretical consideration and technological innovations and the timely response was made to the social demand to know the shakiness of the ground. It should be noted that the ripple effect on the general users is enormous.
 

Development of rock deformation techniques under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions [PDF:1.3MB]

− Evaluation of long-term geological processes by a compressed timescale process model −

By developing experimental technology and methods to reproduce past geological phenomena that occurred in deep underground in a laboratory setting and to accelerate rock deformation and fracture phenomena that progress in a thousand-year scale, an attempt was made to fulfill a social demand for a highly accurate earthquake forecasting model. The experimental apparatus was developed originally by introducing and integrating high-pressure and high-temperature technologies to a general pressure testing device. This is an excellent example where the research advanced by appropriately setting a research scenario that clearly defines the position and objective of the basic research.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 9 Issue 1 (Japanese version Feb. 2016)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Developing a leading practical application for 3D IC chip stacking technology [PDF:1.2MB]

− How to progress from fundamental technology to application technology −

While high integration of integrated circuits had been achieved by downsizing the elements, the achievement of three-dimensionality had not been the main topic of R&D due to its technological difficulties. However, the limit of downsizing has been recognized in recent years, and 3D stacking technology has gained attention. Aoyagi et al. draw the scenario for the development of 3D IC chip stacking technology, and describe the elemental technologies (TSV, cone-shaped bumps) to achieve the goal of the scenario, and the results of the integrated design technology. This is a chronological presentation of their efforts on the strategy to efficiently use the limited research resources through prioritization of issues and obtainment of research resources.
 

Securing a stable supply of critical raw metals [PDF:709KB]

− Efforts and issues for the securement of rare-earth resources −

With the crises arising from the soaring prices of metal resources due to the economic growth of the emerging industrial nations and from the export regulation of rare earths by China, Takagi et al. of the Mineral Resources Research Group responded to the demands for finding prospective deposits, preparing a mineral processing test base, constructing a database, and building cooperative relationship with overseas geological survey institutions, in their effort to organize geological information and to help the government maintain a stable supply of rare metal resources. In this paper, AIST’s R&D, collaboration with resource-producing countries, joint research with development organizations that are necessary for resource development are described with specific case studies. This is a paper that overviews the process of rare earth resource research.
 

Scenario in synthetic-type research: its role and description [PDF:613KB]

− An investigation from Synthesiology papers −

Innovation that originates from the results of basic research is the mainstream of modern R&D, and such innovation is expected to solve various problems in society and to bring about sustainable prosperity. As research funds are allotted and researchers spend effort to obtain results, one problem arises. The problem is that the process, by which basic research leads to results that are useful in solving social problems, is unclear. As a result, the researcher working on the process seeks all sorts of possibilities, and approaches the set solution sometimes by intuition, sometimes by comprehensive thinking, and either way by trial and error. There is a unique research methodology, although still not clarified, called Type Two Basic Research, and its results are the papers of Synthesiology. The objective of this journal is to publish the results and to clarify this research methodology.

This paper is a study to extract a common method that lies behind the diverse types of research that has not become apparent yet, by studying over 100 papers that have been published in eight years since the launch of the journal. As a characteristic of Type Two Basic Research that is a synthetic-type research, attention was paid to the scenario that appears in each paper and serves as the core of research. It is shown that the logical characteristic of the scenarios is common, and the characteristic of the synthetic-type research is presented in a structural manner. This is a valuable paper that shows that the scenario can be explicitly expressed by verbal expression and diagrams, and that it is possible to substantiate research for extracting the theory of research. This paper is beneficial for the future Type Two Basic Research, and offers useful insight to the direction of research for extracting methodologies.
 

Consortium style study on the development of highly reliable photovoltaic modules and acceleration test methods [PDF:454KB]

− Management of the “Consortium Study on Fabrication and Characterization of Solar Cell Modules with Long Life and High Reliability −

In establishing and managing a consortium for photovoltaic modules, it was considered at the time that reliability evaluation technologies were insufficient by the academia and industry, and therefore, it was necessary to establish reliability evaluation technology based on scientific findings by organizing a prototype line for photovoltaic modules. This article specifically describes the process by which sufficient discussions were held with participating companies to obtain understanding when setting research topics and management policies of the consortium, so that the consortium could become a place where several companies cooperate in the development of common fundamental technology. Pertaining to reliability evaluation technology that is the core, the point that should be evaluated highly is the establishment of the acceleration test method through research backed by scientific evidence that replaces knowhow and experiences. This successful case will have major ripple effect on other fields.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 8 Issue 4 (Japanese version Nov. 2015)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of an in-solution observation method using atmospheric scanning electron microscopy (ASEM) [PDF:1.1MB]

− Interdisciplinary research between semiconductor fabrication technology and biological electron microscopy −

The electron microscope is used in a wide range of science and technology fields, but it was difficult to conduct in situ observation of live cells because thin slices of samples had to be made and observed in vacuum. Ogura et al (AIST, Advanced Technology Division, JEOL Ltd.). created the development scenario for a device that enables correlative observation using both the optical microscope and the scanning electron microscope, and allows observation of living cells in solution under atmospheric pressure conditions. They succeeded by collaborating with an EM company and a research institutes that possess outstanding technique in manufacturing SiN films used in the sample dish window. Although this research was conducted with the goal of EM observation for living cells, one of the research results was the drastic reduction of conditions on the EM observation samples, and this opened the possibility for clinical application as diagnostic device for cancers and infectious diseases, as well as for observation of electrochemical reaction in solutions and reaction during temperature change.
 

Effects of cooperation between a small and medium enterprise and AIST [PDF:835KB]

− Impacts of the idea of “Monozukuri” on technicians −

Komatsuseiki Kosakusho Co., Ltd., a medium-sized company, succeeded in the dramatic improvement of the micropiercing pressworking process through careful analysis utilizing AIST technology. Komatsu (Komatsuseiki) and Nakano (AIST) describe the case study from their individual vantage points, and discuss the factors that led to the successful joint research between a small and medium-sized company and a research institution.
 

Advanced ignition technology for the achievement of high thermal efficiency of internal combustion engine [PDF:1.5MB]

− A demonstration of laser ignition in natural gas engines −

The gas engine that runs on natural gas fuel is considered promising for use in cogeneration. However, ignition by spark plug becomes difficult when lean combustion at high combustion ratio is realized in an attempt to achieve high efficiency. Takahashi et al. (AIST) show that the combustion condition can be expanded by pulse laser ignition to increase the heat efficiency of gas engine using methane.
 

Development of a rapid analytical system for glycans using a multistage tandem mass spectral database [PDF:884KB]

− Toward an era where everyone can analyze glycan structure without specialist knowledge −

Glycans are molecules responsible for various biological functions in the body. Although they are being utilized in clinical diagnostic drugs, one issue is that it is difficult to analyze their structures. Kameyama et al. (AIST, Mitsui Information Industry, and Shimadzu Corporation) developed the technology for estimating the structure using the spectra database created from mass spectrometry of glycans, by adopting the respective technological specialties of the institutions or companies. The analytical system was commercialized according to the intellectual property strategy, and is now being used in several institutions.

Health care application of gas sensors [PDF:501KB]

− Medical devices of breath analysis −

Shin et al. (AIST) developed the technology to detect and analyze odor components such as hydrogen and volatile organic compounds in the breath, using a low-cost, simplified sensor. Following the successful commercialization of the halitosis detector, they are engaging in the commercialization of other detectors with the cooperation of medical institutions and volunteer subjects.
 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 8 Issue 3 (Japanese version Aug. 2015)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and the social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in the society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of thin-film multi-junction thermal converters [PDF:3.7MB]

− Establishing metrological traceability system for AC voltage standard −

An accurate AC voltage standard at the national standard level is calculated by comparative measurement of the DC voltage standard and AC voltage using a thermal converter. For the provision of standards for AC voltage, there have been demands from industry for the expansion of the range of voltage and frequency. Also, in the calibration laboratories, a slightly low precision calibration standard that used a method different from thermal converters was used due to the problem of operability and durability, and the standard supply system was not necessarily sufficient. Therefore, Fujiki (AIST) et.al. set the goal of developing a thermal converter that could be applied both as the national standard as well as a calibration standard. They created the scenario from elemental technology development to product realization by considering the issues including the improvement of uncertainty required for national standards, the expansion of the standard range, and the operability, durability, and environmental resistance needed for calibration standards. They succeeded in developing a product that fulfilled the set goal.
 

Green photonics for laser-based manufacturing [PDF:1MB]

− Photonics contributes to a sustainable society in the “photon century” −

The scenario and selection-synthesis of elemental technologies to realize green manufacturing processes and products through a systematic overview of material processing using laser was considered. New technologies developed according to this scenario by Niino (AIST), including the cutting of carbon fiber strengthening resin, surface reformation of the fluoride resin, and fine processing of transparent hard brittle material such as quartz glass are presented as examples. All the examples are difficult to process at high speed and with high quality by ordinary laser processing or other competitive processing technologies. For the practical use and diffusion of these technologies, the important points are the optimization of the prototype to total manufacturing process and the pursuit of high added value through the application of this technology.
 

An IT system development framework utilizable without expert knowledge: MZ Platform [PDF:888KB]

− Toward end user development in manufacturing industry −

Sawada (AIST) et.al. developed the MZ Platform, a tool that enables construction and operation of IT systems by manufacturing engineers who may not have advanced expertise. It is a component system that could be used widely, but the components were constructed through the development of a practical system. To diffuse this system, seminars were held, a consortium was established, technology was transferred to software vendors through TLO, and support including technical instructions by public research institutes was organized. Success cases of the introduction of this tool include the following: a system to collect job performance in a plastic mold injection company; an ordering, manufacturing, and stock management system in the metal surface treatment industry; and an ordering, subcontracting, and progress management system in the mold manufacturing industry. The success factors of the cases are considered.
 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 8 Issue 2 (Japanese version May 2015)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of material testing equipment in high pressure gaseous hydrogen and international collaborative work of a testing method for a hydrogen society [PDF:597KB]

− Toward contribution to international standardization −

The safety of high-pressure hydrogen containers is essential for the diffusion of fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen gas stations. Iijima (AIST) et.al. developed an evaluation method that ensures the reliability of metal materials used in high-pressure hydrogen gas environment, jointly with an American research institution. The scenario for the international standardization of the successfully developed evaluation method is also discussed.
 

Research on social benefits resulting from NEDO projects [PDF:1.5MB]

− Study of the top 70 NEDO Inside Products −

Since the commencement of NEDO projects about 30 years ago, about 3 trillion yen of development funds have been invested. However, a methodology for analyzing the effect of such national investment has not been established. Yamashita (NEDO) et.al. offer a general discussion on the effects, not only in terms of sales but also in terms of job creation and CO2 reduction, for the 70 products of NEDO projects that were successfully put to practical use and commercialization and show good sales. This is a valuable paper that presents the methodology for analyzing the cost-effectiveness.
 

Application of laser Compton photon beam to nondestructive tests [PDF:707KB]

− A spin-off technology from nuclear physics −

Toyokawa (AIST) applied technologies used in the atomic nucleus research to nondestructive tests, and conducted development and improvement as well as selection and integration of the elemental technologies to establish them for industrial use. Toyokawa positions bridging (translational) research as “work where one’s concerns and thinking are organized and gradually shaped into a form that can be readily accepted by society.” This paper describes the processes by which the users’ voices were heard and the direction of research was adjusted.
 

Detection of influenza viruses with the waveguide mode sensor [PDF:1.2MB]

− Development of a palmtop sized sensor −

Awazu (AIST) et.al. developed an intermediate integrated technology that involves the size reduction of a sensor through the integration of elemental technologies, toward the goal of “realizing a simple and highly sensitive influenza virus detector,” and structured the integrated technology through their combination. This is an interesting paper that describes the process of fusion of different fields through joint research by experts in surface chemistry and virology, in addition to the technologies that the authors have already accumulated.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 8 Issue 1 (Japanese version Feb. 2015)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and social value of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the value of the papers in a glance, the highlights of the papers characteristic to Synthesiology are extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Proposal for technology architecture analysis [PDF:857KB]

− Application of an analysis method to the development of car navigation systems −

Noumi (METI) et.al. discuss the findings for methods and strategies in developing new products by mainly analyzing the combination of elemental technologies for car navigation systems that was researched and commercialized by Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. The paper attempts to universalize a method to construct technology architecture construction as a methodology, by providing a diagram after analyzing and organizing the steps and methods of R&D from the viewpoint of technological management. The paper is expected to have some ripple effect throughout industries to increase the accuracy of R&D plans for new products.
 

Clean and practical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide [PDF:1.1MB]

− Development of catalysis and application to fine chemicals −

Kon (AIST) et.al. describe the research scenario for the synthesis and integration of elemental technologies for hydrogen peroxide oxidation technology that the authors have presented for the first time in the world as a typical and specific example of green sustainable chemistry. The descriptions are given from the development of a new catalyst as core research to the product development and manufacture at bench plant scale for the purpose of final product realization. This paper discusses the integrated chemical technology that addresses the importance of catalyst technology in the chemical industry, as well as the importance of alternative technologies and viewpoints that are necessary when realizing new catalyst technology for industry.
 

Development of plastic certified reference materials (CRMs) to cope with restrictions on hazardous substances [PDF:962KB]

− CRMs for analysis of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants regulated by RoHS directive −

Hioki (AIST) et.al. summarize the social background against which the plastic certified reference materials (CRMs) became necessary, the course from the perception of demand to the development of CRMs, the technological development to meet the demands, and the status of distribution of RMs as a contribution to society. The paper describes the strategies and processes by which the RMs for heavy metals and brominated flame retardants that can be used internationally were developed, in prompt response to the strong demand from the industries to urgently react to the RoHS directive.
 

Development of forging process for magnesium alloy continuous cast bars [PDF:1.1MB]

− Forging process utilizing grain refinement −

There is a social demand for weight reduction of a wide range of industrial products from the perspective of resource and energy savings. Saito (AIST) et.al. develop a low-temperature forging process of continuous cast bars of magnesium alloys that have the lightest weight among structural metal materials yet had been considered impossible to accomplish. The paper presents an example in which major contributions were made in cost reduction, decreased environmental load, and improved work environment. It particularly discusses the elemental technologies selected and the integration scenario in developing the forging process through close collaboration between AIST’s basic core technology and corporate manufacturing technology.



Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 7 Issue 4 (Japanese version Nov. 2014)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the goals and social values of the research activities where the results will be utilized in society, the specific scenarios and research procedures, and the processes of synthesis and integration of the elemental technologies. To allow the readers to see the values of the papers in a glance, the highlight points of the papers that are particularly in line with the characteristic of Synthesiology were extracted and presented by the Editorial Board.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

New research trends in artifactology [PDF:1.4MB]

− Modeling of individuals and socialization technology −

Ota (Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering) et.al. describes the methodology to establish the research of artifactology. It is interesting that to attain a sustainable, harmonious relationship between artifacts and individual-society-environment, a methodology is developed from the modeling of individuals whose values shift due to the presence of artifacts, and from the achievement of social technology for artifact co-creation that incorporates both the objective identification and solution finding through collaboration among the parties on issues for which the objectives are unclear. The specific examples given are the individual modeling using an experimental economics method and the modeling of a product service system.
 

Mental fatigue measurement as application software on consumer devices [PDF:1MB]

− Introducing reliable fatigue index to daily life −

Iwaki (AIST) et.al. developed a technology that allows the evaluation of fatigue (flicker test) by measuring the perception threshold of visual “flickering.” This was conventionally used only for academic purposes using special equipment, but this new technology allows the use of general-use electronic devices such as smart phones and personal computers on a daily basis. While the flashing frequency is used in the flicker test, it is shown that the test can be done using the flashing contrast. The elemental technologies for the fatigue monitoring system using the general-use electronic devices and their integration scenario are explained.
 

Development of evaluation technologies for sedimentary characteristics [PDF:1.1MB]

− Applicability of the technologies to the assessment of methane hydrate sediments −

In order to use methane hydrate as a new natural gas resource, accurate prediction of the effect of exploration to the surrounding sedimentary strata is necessary from the perspective of social acceptability as well as economy. This paper by Tenma (AIST) is an overview of the development of a sedimentary deformation simulator for a long-term, safe production, the well integrity evaluation based on the simulation, and the system of wide-area sedimentary deformation evaluation technology that were conducted by the “Methane Hydrate Resource R&D Consortium (MH21).”
 

International standardization of four dimensional radiotherapy system [PDF:1MB]

− Enhancement of effects of irradiation and assurance of safety −

In radiotherapy, it is necessary to accurately irradiate the necessary level of therapeutic radiation to the tumor position while avoiding exposure of healthy tissues, although the tumors may move due to patient’s respiration. Hirata (Hokkaido University) et.al. created the standard for technological requirements of safety for the four-dimensional radiotherapy system considering the time change of the three-dimensional position of the affected area. The strategy and result of the international standardization that was promoted by a wide range of stakeholders including the Japanese medical device manufacturers, physicians, medical technicians, researchers, related government bureaucracies, and others are described.

Preparation of superconducting films by metal organic deposition [PDF:912KB]

− Research and development towards a fault current limiter and other electric devices −

By forming into a thin film, the high-temperature oxide superconductor is a hopeful material in the application to various devices and equipment, as well as use in the transmission lines. Manabe (AIST) et.al. originally developed the deposition technology for metal oxides by just “coating and firing” the solution on a substrate by a metal organic deposition method. In this paper, focus was placed on the development of a fault current limiter for the application of high-temperature oxide superconductors to electrical devices. The paper gives the details of the research scenario for the selection and integration of the elemental technologies employed for the practical application of the MOD method.

 

Highlights of the Papers in Synthesiology Volume 7 Issue 3 (Japanese version Aug. 2014)

Synthesiology is a journal that describes the objectives and the social values of research activities that attempt to utilize the results in society, the specific scenarios and the research procedures, and the process of synthesis and integration of elemental technologies. The papers in this issue will be highlighted below to clarify their values.

Synthesiology Editorial Board
 

Development of a stable growth factor suitable for radioprotection [PDF:1.2MB]

− Drug development-aimed R&D at a basic research institute −

The physiologically active protein “FGFC” that regulates cell functions was developed to reduce damage of the body from high-dose radiation exposure. Considering the fact that the pharmaceutical approval process of the radioprotective drugs is different from that of the general pharmaceutical products, efforts were spent on the selection and stabilization of the candidates for highly active molecules, the establishment of a mass production system, the application of molecular structures to medical use, and the clarification of the protective mechanism. The paper presents a long-term scenario as an effort of a basic research institute to send out a radioprotective drug with performance that surpasses the currently available agents to society.
 

Development of a protein array for autoantibody profiling of blood [PDF:1.4MB]

−Comprehensive disease diagnosis using the body's defense system −

In cases of diseases such as cancer, there is an excessive amount of antibodies against specific autologous proteins found in the blood serum, and it was shown that early diagnosis is possible through comprehensive detection of the autoantibodies. For this development, centering on the breakthrough construction of the “world's largest human protein expression resource,” the paper presents the scenario for integrating elemental technologies such as the comprehensive protein expression technology, protein array technology, antibody detection technology, and screening technology.
 

Technological development of internal heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) [PDF:2.2MB]

− Substantive research of application to a bench plant of bioethanol distillation −

To enable efficient distillation of substances such as biomass that tend to cause clogging, and to realize the essential goal of energy saving, internal heat-integrated distillation columns were developed, and the road to practical application was paved by conducting demonstration of a highly safe compressor-free bench plant. This paper describes a theory of project management that shows the process where the divergence between the equilibrium theory and non-equilibrium theory, which was a barrier to development, was overcome by fusing process system engineering and heat transfer engineering while collaborating with the bioprocess field.
 

Secure password authentication schemes and their applications [PDF:648KB]

− How to achieve security with short passwords −

In the Internet community, the assets and rights may be exposed to danger if the passwords (keys) are leaked or stolen. Reverting to basic theories from the actual problems of password and key management, a key sharing method was devised and implemented to ensure safety in cases where leakage occurs on either the server or the client. Since security should be built on credibility, the method cannot be improved while subjecting it to social trial. It is important to conduct risk assessment where all problems are assumed and measures are taken beforehand.

Development of environmentally-friendly surface modification technology [PDF:1.1MB]

− Practical realization of novel oleophobic coatings without relying on perfluorinated compounds and surface texturing −

To realize a solid surface where liquid droplets such as contaminated water are not likely to remain, a new technology, which does not require roughening or treatment by perfluorinated compounds that are substances of environmental concern, was developed, and the mass production technology was achieved in a short time through technological transfer. The paper describes an R&D strategy where, based on basic research that focused on the dynamic behavior of molecules on solid surfaces, the sol-gel method is introduced as the coating technology essential for practical application, and the elemental technologies of private companies are fused admirably.

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