The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has been supporting the promotion of research and development of industrial technologies in Japan and the enhancement of Japan's industrial competitiveness. The research achievements presented here are the fruits of efforts by the Nanotube Research Center and the Nanosystem Research Institute, both of AIST in the Nanotechnology, Materials and Manufacturing field. The research topics reflect our keen awareness of originality, making a strong impact on industries, and addressing challenges that may be too risky for corporations to take on by themselves. Specifically, we are aiming to develop industrial applications of nanometer-scale structures, namely single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), organic nanotubes (ONTs), and bio-nanotubes which are tubular, and graphene which is planer. SWCNTs are expected to have wide-ranging industrial applications. Methods to mass-synthesize high-purity SWCNTs and to generate high-quality SWCNTs have finally been developed 20 years after their discovery, offering the prospects of actual industrial applications. In the area of electronic applications of CNTs, the development of techniques for the separation of semiconductor and metallic SWCNTs has advanced, and further progress in the electronics field is expected. In addition, we are also investigating applications for medical examination and treatment utilizing the excellent absorption properties of carbon nanohorns and ONTs. We are aiming to expand the use of nanotubes through nanotube formation for specific purposes and functionalization. Evaluations of the physical properties of SWCNTs by optical or electro-optical measuring methods are the basic technologies for applied nanotube research and they also contribute to international standardization (such as by the International Organization for Standardization). The development of a world-leading ultra-high-resolution electron microscope and the establishment of a method for evaluating CNTs with the microscope are world-class accomplishments of the Nanotube Research Center.